Short answer: no.
But there are a few other ways to spin this, especially if you look towards reality.
Airships didn't play the role you envision them for a few reasons:
- They are slow. A defender has lots of time to prepare.
- Low service ceiling
WW1 means no pressurised hulls, which imposes a pretty hard limit on the service ceiling. Also, the higher you get, the lower the lighter-than-air lift. All WW1 airships I could find, have a service ceiling <3000m, most <1000m. That makes them vulnerable to a lot of weapons that couldn't hit a plane.
- They are huge and thus easy to hit
- They are literally air balloons filled with explosive gas, so one hit can take them down.
- They can't carry a lot of bomb weight (max I could find for WW1 was around 300kg)
Initially, the airship was considered a very dangerous bombing weapon. But soon the men in charge noticed, that they were to easy and soft targets for frontline warfare.
So how can you use this in your setting?
First, how to make airships effective?
- Use lots of (possibly leash-guided) decoy ships to draw fire away from the real ships.
- airships should fly their combat missions as close to the service ceiling as possible (even if the crew might occasionally pass out). This will limit their payload, so if the skies are safe, they can fly lower and carry more.
- Camouflage the airship. Maybe use dazzle paint?
How to counter this?
- FLAKs can easily shoot down airships. I randomly googled WW1 FLAKs and found some with a vertical range of almost 7km, which is more than double what the airships can fly to.
- Counter balloons with balloons: the city people could "drop" small hydrogen balloons with proximity trigger shrapnel grenades, which would float up and try to explode when they get close to the airship. These would need to be brought out in carpet style, but that should be possible.
Bonus: Why do lighter-than-air vehicles fly so low?
The main issue is that a lighter-than-air vehicle needs to be actually lighter (meaning less dense) than the surrounding air to fly. Air density decreases the farther up you get. That means, if you want to fly higher, the aircraft needs to be less dense. Less dense means less weapons, lighter (less stable) structure and overall less payload.
Combine that with the very limited choice of low-density-high-strength work materials available during WW1 and you end up with airships that can either fly low and actually carry something to make them worth being used, or fly high and empty.
Also, if you fly higher, you also need a pressurized cabin for the crew. This adds a lot of weight and wasn't too feasible in WW1 era at all.
Bonus: Why are armoured lighter-than-air vehicles not a thing?
The oldest tank I could find used 6mm steel armor. 6mm is not a lot. It can stop regular gunfire, but it won't work wonders for bigger guns or even explosive/armour piercing rounds. Also, an airship has large, almost unsupported surfaces. A round hitting this armour will create shockwaves and all in all 6mm of steel armour will probably not help much. But, for argument's sake, let's say it's good enough.
Also, let's say, our aircraft should be able to fly at 3000m height. That's about as high as the best lighter-than-air aircraft in WW1.
Also, let's assume, the crew, payload, engines, fuel, internal structure and everything else weighs nothing.
This means, our aircraft would have to have 15.7 million m³ of volume. If the ship has the same radius of the massive Hindenburg, it would have to be 11.7 km long.
If it's supposed to fly at 7000m height, the volume would be 57.5 million m³ of volume, and the length would be 42.7 km. That's roughly the diameter of London.
Edit: all the calculations are for the perfect shape to reduce surface area while increasing volume: a sphere. So if you actually want to build this in the shape of an airship, it's going to be much longer than the above mentioned numbers.