Let's talk a little about intoxicants and why it's a Really Bad Idea™ to mess with them like this.
The most common legal intoxicant on the planet at the moment is alcohol. Alcohol is a poison that interacts with your brain chemistry, monkeying with the production of various neurotransmitters. It suppresses the release of glutamate, a neurotransmitter responsible for increased brain activity and energy levels, leading to a general slowdown in your reactions and thought processes. Next it increases the production of GABA, further reducing energy levels. These are the reason alcohol is classed as a depressant. On the other hand it also increases the release of dopamine, the pleasure chemical, in the reward center of your brain. So your reactions are slowed down, your get clumsy and tend to fall over things other people can't see, but you feel really happy about it.
And that's just one of many.
Your virus has to do one of two things: rewire the entire chemical system in the brain to make it immune to these effects or change the blood/brain barrier to prevent all intoxicants from entering. From a biochemical perspective no virus is ever going to be able to achieve either of these. But just for the hell of it, let's assume that they could.
The first option is a big ask, and almost certainly fatal. We're not just talking about blocking a few receptors here, you're looking at recreating the brain pretty much from scratch to use an entirely different set of chemical processes. Every part of each of 86 billion or so neurons in the brain needs to be altered to use entirely novel chemical processes. All of the glands in the body will need to be changed to produce the new standard chemicals, etc. I couldn't even begin to list the hundreds of thousands of new reactions that you'd need at the end of the process, but I can tell you flat out that there's no way you're going to rebuild a human body over a few days and have it functional the whole time. Either your body manages to fight off the infection - making it ineffective - or you die, no middle ground.
The second case could possibly be done, and wouldn't necessarily be fatal, but it's going to cause serious issues. Firstly, chemical withdrawal just as bad as going cold turkey on everything they take. For most of us that's not a problem, but anyone with severe chemical dependence is going to have a really bad day. Or month. Some of them will die because the medication to help them with their withdrawal is also blocked, since it's generally an analog of the drug that screwed them over in the first place. No synthetic analogs to help trick the brain's chemistry into thinking it's being gently eased off the addiction, just a hard stop on the chemical you're dependent on. Not a fun thing, by all accounts.
Of course you're not going to get all intoxicants this way. While most common intoxicants are poisons that mess with your brain chemistry, a few are things that your body produces and needs for healthy operation, just at levels well below the point at which hallucinations and so on occur (looking at you N,N-Dimethyltripamine). You can't close off the brain to everything, it'll shut down in seconds. Any channel you leave open will be identified and a whole new batch of intoxicants will be on the shelves in time for <insert holiday of choice>.
Another down-side of the whole thing is that there are a lot of drugs that fall into the 'intoxicant' category when used to excess that in other situations are actually quite important. Opioids for pain, Benzodiazepam for a variety of issues, Dazepam (or Valium if you prefer the branded pills) for a bunch of things... and so on. Millions of people around the world are living healthy, happy lives because their doctors prescribed the right dosage of happy pills, and your virus is going to take that all away. (And that's not counting the millions more who are just prescribed the pills because their doctor gets kick-backs.) How many people are going to handle life when they're suddenly dumped back into their worst mental states with no warning and no way to deal with it?
And since we're tangentially approaching the topic, let's have a quick glance over at psychological dependence. The habitual drinkers might be OK once the dry terrors are over - they can still drink after all - but the ones that have a deep conviction that they need to get drunk/high/wasted/whatever to get anything good out of life, to enjoy themselves or just to unwind... they're going to be damned hard to deal with. Don't underestimate the power of mental convictions and conditioning. I know people who can go months without touching a drop but hit the bar to blow off steam when the stress levels get high enough, and some of them are going to go off the rails in terrible ways if they can't relieve their stress that way.
So yeah, I don't want to live in that world. I don't drink much, I don't take drugs recreationally and I'm not dependent on medication for (what I will laughingly refer to as) my sanity. But although I don't have a real dog in the fight, I really don't want to watch the world go even more insane than it already is.