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The planet orbits a K-type star. Basically same gravity as Earth's, with similar atmosphere. I'd like it to have a 30-hour day, plus in my characters' region, occasional very bad thunderstorms. Think winds of 60 mph, bad lightning, and maybe even a very precipitous drop in temperature. Think summer thunderstorms on steroids. It has flash floods.

The years will be shorter, yes? Because it's closer to the star.

Other than that, I'm looking for a basically temperate climate. I'm only talking about a portion of the planet for the time being, because right now I'm not smart enough to talk about the size of the continents and what kind of oceans.

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If you want periodic thunderstorms that are seasonal, so there are times of the year when they're likely and others when they are not, then you want a world with very similar conditions to Earth and the location in question will be located in the temperate latitudes. Part of what defines temperate climates is the fact that they have very distinct seasons.

On the other hand if you want to have a place that experiences strong storm activity at more random and unpredictable intervals then a maritime climate is a more realistic setting.

The only other note I have is that a world with the same circumference as Earth and a 30hr day will have a different Hadley cell format, due to the slower rotation, so the broad circulation patterns and the weather zones they create are going to be commensurately different. This video has quite a good explanation of atmospheric circulation.

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What you want is totally possible.

The duration of the day on a planet doesn't depend on the star it orbits, but on the series of events which determined its rotation period: in our solar system the Earth has a 24 hours day, while the other planets have largely different day durations.

Same goes for the weather: Jupiter and Uranus have strong storms, same as Venus has strong winds and Earth, well, you know. You just need an atmosphere where the thunderstorms can form and an energy supply to feed those storms.

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