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I have read the comments and thank you. I'm new to this website and I will continue to fix my mistakes until you people don't get confused.

  • The planets gravity is 10.8m/s^2. I've read some where that on a planets gravity like this, a person would need larger veins and muscles.
  • The planet is in the habitable zone of a spectral type K star(0.815Au)
  • The planet's density is 5515kg/m^3, the mass is 6.03x 10^24kg, and the size/diameter is 12,757km
  • The days are still 26 hours -The axial tilt is 21.5 degrees
  • The planet has one moon, the size of Mercury
  • It has seasons like Earth
  • The atmosphere is still made up of 79% Nitrogen, 20% Oxygen, and 1% trace gases like CO2 and Argon -The atmospheric pressure at sea is 111628.8pa(0.76 x 13600 x 10.8) -The amount of water(both salt and fresh) is 98.6%.

The questions that I have are now only going to be about plants. If you could also give me a website or formula that you used to find the answers that would help me a lot.

-How tall would plants grow? I saw a comment about the hot summers and cold winter covered in ice. So how high would they need to be to survive? -How long would it take for them to mature? -Would the less oxygen and more nitrogen affect how to they look or reproduce? -If the clouds picked up the same amount of water like here on Earth, How far down could the roots grow? Also, just for simplistic, the soil is made of the same things as earths soil. -How would the plants life cycle be effected be the temperatures and locations? -What kind of plants are radiation resistant? -How much radiation would the planet have?

Thank you for asking me questions, and please continue to do so. I will also look into plants growing using red wavelengths. I also know that the planet will be red on land and the plants would be black in colour. The planets temp. is also, 40 Celsius.

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    $\begingroup$ Do you made the math about these numbers? Size density and mass same as Earth will result in a gravity aceleration same as Earth, not like 10% more. This is not much to cause issues. Also, this would be a planet with metal in their core and probably will have a magnetic shield. Atmospheric composition and pressure are at same too. Major problem is not a big moon to stable the rotation axis. $\endgroup$ Jan 27 at 16:06
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    $\begingroup$ the gravity is 9.9 what? apples? bees? furlongs? $\endgroup$
    – L.Dutch
    Jan 27 at 16:32
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    $\begingroup$ @L.Dutch, while I agree that 9.9g vs 9.9m/s^ is a crushing difference, given the statement that the new planet is the same density and mass and basically the same radius as Earth, I think it is safe to assume it is 9.9m/s^2. This would align with the other factors basically being the same as Earth. $\endgroup$
    – JonSG
    Jan 27 at 20:17
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    $\begingroup$ @JonSG and it would massively conflict with the "which means that the animals will need to be strong" $\endgroup$
    – L.Dutch
    Jan 27 at 20:18
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    $\begingroup$ @L.Dutch Good point, but without a liberal does of "handwavium", I'm not sure how you can have a planet with the same size, density and mass as the Earth but with 10x the gravity. $\endgroup$
    – JonSG
    Jan 27 at 20:20

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The main problem will be with plants. If you have the same energy income to the planet, at the redder light, the light energy that the plants will get will be significantly lower.

For actual sunlight, where only 45% of the light is in the photosynthetically active wavelength range

(wiki)

So, I am afraid, you should look for some plants that can make photosynthesis based on orange light. Only they will remain.

As your planet will be closer to the star (in need of energy), it will get significantly more radiation. Without a good magnetosphere, most of your animals will simply die off. Even with it, the solar particle radiation will be greater. So, some will die, others will mutate heavily. Most of the mutations will be deadly, too. But turtles will manage it, for sure. Look for the tables of radiation resistance of different animals and plants.

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Your life needs to handle short seasons with long periods of hot and cold

The planet looks like an Earth twin. Despite orbiting a small star, it even rotates on a near Earth schedule and has an Earth-like set of seasons. They have to be shorter than Earth's because the dim star demands a closer orbit with a shorter year.

Yet the gods of good fortune have denied this planet one vital Earthly asset - a large Moon to keep the planet on an even keel. Over time, a planet without a large moon, like Mars, can undergo chaotic changes in obliquity. Your system likely has other planets in similarly small orbits, passing close by, which might have made a Moon impossible, and increase the chaos.

So your life forms have had to deal with times when your planet rotated on an axis parallel to its orbital plane around the star, so instead of having a 26-hour day, its star just moved around in a circle in the sky all day long. The only thing that mattered during those times was summer and winter. Thick snow and ice accumulated in one part of the year, and perhaps melted in another.

Your life forms will be especially good at flying to better climates, or hibernation or estivation. In this regard they are like asteroid-struck Earth, but they have suffered many long periods of similar selection. You will have few things that simply remain in place and eat vegetation in one spot like so many species on Earth - they all need an escape plan.

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