Most languages on earth do not have every phoneme. When creating a new language, how do I decide which ones to choose? How should I manage the relationship between different languages? I have a race of wolf-people as well as a race of humans & I'm not sure how to go about relating the wolf phonemes (which will probably be a lot more vowel, tone, & duration based) to human phonemes? The race I'm creating the language for is from the book series Codex Alera. Canim, (KAH-nimm). I'm considering making a TV series which I will need a language for.
I'm basing the writing style off of Futhark, because the characters have no horizontal lines. When writing in wood: horizontal lines would be invisible within the grain. This is why Futhark (& soon-to-be Canish) have only diagonal & vertical lines. They go against the grain & pop out visually. Even if Canim cannot produce the sounds of Futhark I can still use the characters as inspiration. Hindi, Finnish, & Astonian might be good languages to relate dog sounds to human mouths.
Some words & names include: Tavar, Gadara, Sa/Sar, La/Lar, Gradash, Varg, Sarl, Nasaug, Sochar-Lar (Socha-La), Lararl, Kharsh, Marok, Narash, Shaur, Maraul, Tarsh, Shuar, Molvar, & Anag. From these words we can assume that the phonemes include at least:
"ta" probably not "ta/tha" on the teeth as in the french word for "tea" due to carnivore teeth.
"va" but with the bottom lip in front of the teeth instead of under it.
"ra" & probably several different kinds of "r"s. I have a speech impediment with my "r"s so I typically use my lip & teeth to make the english "r". Canim would probably also have the uvular "r"s, especially trills. The soft french "r", the arabic french "r", & the smooth trilled french "r" would all be very useful. I definitely believe that they would have a plethora of different "r"s.
"da" This one is just "ta" with vocals. Both of them have very sharp sounds though, & dogs struggle to hear consonants. I may consider doing away with all of the voiced vs unvoiced sounds & lump them all in the same category. "Pa" & "ba"? Same sound.
"ra" as in the Japanese r/l or only one of the Spanish "r" trills. That depends on the tongue though. A thin tongue might not work as well.
"Sa" might be lisped or whistled. I doubt that "s" would be a common letter.
"La" but none of the dental "l"s.
"Ga" the "g" can have an "r" immediately after. Dogs' tongues are huge so tbh I think they would have a ton of "g" sounds, like how Korean has several (including "ka"). I believe they would also have those "h" sounds that are kind of growly. Maybe like the "tl" of quetzalcoatl or axolotl. (Btw "axolotl" os pronounced more like "ashochle".) I would go so far as to say that your different "ranges" of Canim would have regional dialects. Some might use velar "g"s while others might use uvular (or even dental, considering their tongues) "g"s & "g"-like sounds.
"sha" which is one I'm skeptical about. I believe it is post-alveolar. Maybe this is one of their versions of "s" because they cannot pronounce other "s"s.
"Ma" Bilabial sounds (lip on lip) might be uncommon. They might also only have bilabial stops. I'm not entirely sure if muzzled animals regularly breathe through their noses, but if they don't: it would be more like a human with a cold. "M" becomes "b". Not to mention lip dexterity. We say cats make "meow" sounds so Canim might be able to have an "m".
"Na" This sound would definitely have a few iterations. Dogs have such long tongues, it is similar to "g" & "k" with the "n" being at the front & "ng" being at the back. In fact, if a dog could put the tip of its tongue anywhere from the teeth to the back of the hard palate like humans (or farther), but ALSO have the tongue at a curve so that the middle of the tongue can touch those same places, then they might be able to make a series of "n" sounds as well as a series of "ng" sounds.
"Varg" might actually be pronounced like a pirate's "argh" rather than with the english "r" or the sharp "g" that is just a voiced "k". The species that speaks this language is, after all, a wolf species. Maybe like the velar (voiced or unvoiced) non-sibilant fricatives. I really have velar sounds bouncing around in my head for this.
"Sarl" is probably not pronounced like "parlay" in english. Possibly like "parlé" in french. It could be the soft "peanut butter on the roof of your mouth" "r", the soft trill, or the rough "h"-like trill. If Alerans/humans say it, they would definitely use the soft "r", regardless of whether it is growling or not.
"Kharsh" has an interesting spelling. Why the "h"? Is it to emphasize the fact that it is unvoiced? Is it to imply that the "k" is not a stop? If so, then it would be more like "charsh" from "loch" or "gharsh" from pirate "argh". Again, dogs struggle to differentiate consonants.
"Marok" might have similar sounds for the "r" & the "k" if they are pronounced like "argh" & "loch". "Marghogh" might sound like Magok,Marok, or Maror to us, but to people who are used to that sound (especially a species that struggles with consonants) it may sound more varied.
"Molvar" So another person making a muzzled language said they ruled out "v" (& the unvoiced "f") but the Canim have that sound. Not only that but the "l" is able to be used before it. I have mentioned this before, I'm sure: "v" might be able to be pronounced if the bottom lip is in front of the teeth rather than below. The "l" & "v" also have to be compatible. "olv" is a very human sound & I doubt a snouted animal would be able to make those sounds the way humans think of them.
(I already did some research on this: I need(ed) information about what sounds dogs could physically make, but all of the information online was "If your dog [whimpers, yips, barks, etc] it means that they are [happy, feeling threatened, etc]." Yeah, thanks, but what phonetic sounds are involved in a bark?)
Keep your eyes out for a follow-up question about words & language rather than just phonemes!