Imagine a near-future where we have developed artificial womb and utilization of it over traditional pregnancy has become a viable option.
use of artificial wombs drastically lower the risk of miscarriages (which, for those that don't know, are actually surprisingly common, though most happen so early in pregnancy so that those not actively trying to conceive never know they miscarried), as well as lowering the risk of non-genetic birth defects. The artificial wombs protect mothers from health risks, and general displeasure, of pregnancy as well.
The process is similar to IVF process of today to retrieve the eggs and fertilize them, prior to placing them in the womb; though an egg placed in the womb is far more likely to grow then implanted eggs from IVF. However, the process is less costly then modern IVF. Only a few eggs are required, so no medication more difficult then clomid is required pre-retrieval; and the entire retrieval process has been made far less difficult/painful/expensive.
In total the artificial womb approach is only about a 500-1,000 dollars ore expensive then pregnancy. However, pregnancy costs are spread out across an entire pregnancy, so artificial wombs require a bit more of an upfront expense. (no doubt some loan companies exist to help with this, for a modest interest fee. Hopefully they don't make you put your first born son up as collateral...) In addition human nature is odd, people may not realize how much they spend for a pregnancy, and thus the wombs may seem more expensive because the costs are obvious; while the costs of traditional pregnancy, for example increase expenses on food (which alone adds up to a few thousand dollars over nine months), and constant medical visits, are less obvious.
Lets also assume that in this world birth control (particularly female birth control techniques) are more effective, and have gotten to be more common (My personal belief is that much of the cultural resistance to birth control is dropping fast and within a generation or two birth control will be more common, started at younger ages, and perhaps even provided by the government since birth control expenses are far less then the expense of an unplanned pregnancy; regardless of your belief in this please presume that for this question). Thus unplanned pregnancies are far less common, though still occur.
Lets go further, and assume that some forms of infertility are easily addressed this way (as gestational surrogates are used today, but a gestational surrogate costs 20,000+ where as an artificial womb is barely more expensive then carrying on your own).
In addition single fathers be choice become far more possible as well. There would be a (larger) egg donor community as well, due mostly due to the easier approach of withdrawing eggs. In fact those that have a pregnancy via artifical womb have the option to 'sell' extra eggs withdrawn for the pregnancy this well for small, but decent, reduction of the procedure costs; though many women do not take this option for the same reason women of today often are not interested in the idea of egg donation. Due to the difficulty of withdrawing eggs, the limited number of pregnancy you can get form a egg withdrawal or donated eggs, and most importantly the fact that many women will not be comfortable with donating eggs, eggs will still be somewhat expensive, but not as prohibitively as they are now. In fact it will be about as hard/expensive for a man to be a single father as it is right now for a women to become a single mother with bank sperm (maybe just a tad more expensive).
My question is, how will culture adapt to this sort of change? What will societal norms and beliefs be in such a culture? How will people look at single parents now that they are more likely to be by choice then accident (though of course accident is still common, as are single parents due to divorce or death of partner). How much will people cling to the old fashion ways, despite the new ways being safer for mother and child? What will culture think of single fathers by choice, any different then single mothers by choice? Will there be prejudice against those that have children in vitro vs in vivo? Will there be any new cultural trends or technological options utilization of this technology (random example, sex choice of children may become more common if your already doing IVF?)
I may ask a separate question about how the adoption will go (ie, who will resist it, what cultural turmoil will go on while it is first being adopted), depending on the results of this question. Thus, for now, my focus of interest is simply on how it will be treated once some of the original culture shock of the option is over and it's at least as available an option as bank sperm now. I'm more then happy to hear speculation about earlier culture shock, but since I may be focusing on that area exclusively later I don't want to waste too much of the answers time repeating themselves :)