Okay, these involve very specific terrain, but should work.
Assumption: Medieval Tech people group, previously in contact with other regions, now must be cut off and isolated.
Requirement: region is a valley, surrounded by mountains.
6 months: The region is located reasonably far north (or south, really) and the passes in and out of the region are only clear six months out of the year. At the lower altitudes of the valley, things are more temperate, but high in the mountains the snow starts coming down heavily by November and doesn't clear up until April. In theory, you might be able to work your way through the pass, but at a medieval tech-level, it is extremely unlikely as the snow comes down faster than you can clear it, and you don't have the survival gear necessary to survive it.
2 years+: Massive volcanic eruption (think Yellowstone Caldera) a long way away creates atmospheric disruption and drops global temperatures across the board. It no longer gets warm enough to melt the snow in the passes, barring all passage in and out of the valley. Eventually, the atmospheric disruption will settle down and temperatures will return to normal, re-opening the passes.
Indefinite: This one is much harder, because technology advances and people adapt and get creative with their circumstances. Eventually, they would figure out how to get past most obstacles. Strand them in a desert (rapid desertification), they'll figure out how to cross it. Shatter the land around them and put a huge body of water there, they'll build boats. Perma-freeze the passes around their valley, and they'll work out cold weather gear and mountaineering equipment. Move them all underground and seal the entrance, and they'll dig their way out eventually. Permanently containing a tool-using intelligent race just doesn't work without having some way to prevent them from advancing.
The only possibility I can think of for this case isolates a people-group semi-indefinitely, rather than a region. People group flees from some disaster and take to the ocean. Ocean-crossing isn't really a thing in the Medieval era, but they get lucky and not only does their ship(s) survive the open ocean, they find their way to a large island that can support them and move in. They are now isolated for as long as they remain incapable of building a new ocean-crossing vessel and the navigation equipment to reliably find their way home if they stray too far (or until someone else finds them).