I am shooting for a futuristic image of fighter warfare (similar to the depiction in Star Wars). As jets and long-ranged targeting have developed, aerial “turn-fighting” and short-range dogfights between fighter planes have been obsolete for a while. These scenarios seem even less probable between spacecraft, given the difficulty of changing direction and sheer open space. Are there any realistic sets of conditions, on Earth, space, or an alien environment that would encourage a return to World War II-style dogfighting/maneuvering mechanics? The radar, long-ranged missiles, etc. could stay, but fighters themselves would need to be maneuverable at low speeds and engage in close-range dogfight tactics, as well as have tactical use, even if somewhat expendable. Fighters do not need to be planes (or even fly) as long as they maintain the plane-like, linear style of motion in three-dimensional space. All combatants would use the same type of vehicle.
I guess this scenario comes down to two restrictions: limiting the range of modern/futuristic firepower, and finding an environment with applicable technology to make fighters able to change direction quickly and relatively efficiently, probably by moving through a medium. Are there any general, vaguely realistic causes for this?
If this question is too broad, some specific possibilities I had in mind were that combat is restricted to tight, closed spaces (canyons, tunnels, etc.), the environment is too delicate for heavy weapons, or that advanced heat-cloaking technology or a harsh atmosphere make heat-seeking weapons obsolete. A dense atmosphere could also make planes more maneuverable. I have also considered using submarines, since this style of combat may be more realistic through a liquid medium. Would any of these scenarios realistically encourage these kinds of movement mechanics?
Side note: The future would likely see a rise in drones or automated piloting for this sort of task. While not a first priority, I would love an excuse to put pilots physically in the fighters again, in case that becomes a direct factor.