To have a longer year you will have to move the planet away from the sun (just slightly), or have a slightly more eccentric orbit. This will increase the extremes of hot/cold, wet/dry. This will make it harder for life to develop on the planet. Once life is established, it will adapt to new conditions.
To get greater tides, move the moon closer or make it more massive. With greater mass it will move more water. If you move the moon closer it will have to orbit faster. Thus the tides will come in and go out more rapidly.
You can make the planet uninhabitable, but that is no fun. You could have most life in the oceans. With extremes, and tsunamis twice a day land life may be limited to algae and moss. Everything else gets smashed on the rocks. As you back off from OMG plants can develop. With high winds plants will remain stunted, and no flying animals will evolve. Backing off more will increase the size of plants and animals and at some point flight will no longer be suicidal.
Of course life could be engineered/designed. It would also be possible that a friendly planet was shifted in orbit by a wandering star/planet. Most life died in the shift, but not all.
I suppose building codes would change with weekly hurricane force winds scouring the landscape.
Ice tides. Every lunar cycle a single wave of ice breaks on the shore. It is a wall of ice meters high that is pulled from the ocean. It is sort of like an instant glacier.
With the moon closer, you might end up with more volcanic activity. This would result in more dust in the air. Organisms might develop more nose hair and better mucus membranes to remove the particulates.
With a very difficult planet, you might need special locations or periodic intervals where things are a bit more friendly.
If Earth shifted orbit tomorrow, our current topology would allow for some sheltered areas. Small valleys that are protected. The isolated pockets of life would become very strange places. Think New Zealand to the European explorers who found it. However, mostly all the soil would be blown off and end up at the bottom of the oceans. The silt load will kill most ocean animals, though some would survive. The oceans would remain turbid because the silt cannot settle. Larger particles of soil would end up in the deep trenches, and the average ocean depth would decline. A rise in sea level would kill off a few more of the isolated pockets of life.
The ash spewed forth by volcanic activity would act as an abrasive. The wind and ash would grind mountains to dust. The world would become much flatter after a few thousands of years. The quiet habitable valleys would also be great places for ash to settle out. This could be a fertilizer boon for those that can handle breathing more silica.