The situation isn't that bad if there aren't some special factors.
Their grand grand grand grand×8 parent's technologies, aka 21 century, aka today - are good enough for them not to die out and restore Earth to pristine conditions.
30 million people and exabytes of data - quite a disproportion in data volume and abilities to process it and work with it considering that only a fraction of them will do that. So some assistive information processing technologies may be important for the getting, at least it will make a huge difference in outcomes and how that situation develops over time. Finding relevant data in the cat videos will be not that easy, and then build up some structure out of it.
I can't get over myself and imagine such technological solutions and situations as 200-300 years in the future. I agree with Starfish Prime, with what he said in the comment section which is moved in chat now, I cite
- "And if colonists have no ability to travel between planets anymore, and no native industry, then they've been deliberately sabotaged (or planned by complete idiots, it would be hard to tell the difference) and they're all going to die." - Starfish Prime, 2021 BSE (before space era)
Not necessarily agree on the die part, it depends, definitely on the list of possibilities, but it depends and depends in the first place on organization and cooperation between people, and then on the tools they actually have, and then on creative use of those. (Did they saved Apollo mission with duct tape back in the days, eh?)
But the described situation is not a future, so will consider it as more or less near future and today reality, and course of actions - what can be done in that situation from a position of today's reality. So, do not consider AI overlords and such good stuff, which could help them fly over the problems with ease.
- I mean, not endorsing the view on the future and future technologies, ave nothing to do with it, just answering a q.
In general, guys are set up very well to solve their problems, we only can dream about such possibilities.
Those Venus colonies have energy advantage and potential for rapid development - and example this answer Landing humans on Venus - MacGuffinite - colonists on the Venus or around it already are in a position to start things, they already have their survival means, etc.
Here are some points, on how fast some situations can grow, how fast they could develop their energy and production capacities on the level of technologies available to them
Chips problem is indeed is an interesting one, but also it needs to point out that there are ppl who DIY that stuff in a garage, more than one, in that sense this q/a is interesting, links to that DIY guy there
This one also somewhat relevant:
This one can be your initial goal, to save the data and replace high-tech data centers, which works well with that K1 Dyson swarm goal. Considering that DIY chips guy and that low-tech CPUs are more than enough for storing and work with those exabytes of data. So no need to underestimate primitive things in space.
The main advantage of those guys is - they are already in space and there are plenty of them, and energy is cheap in space, at mars-earth-venus orbits (less so for Mars, but it is fine if we talk about the vacuum of space, not the surface of Mars)
- To compensate a little bit for the lack of individual approach o your situation and it being mostly links, oh, btw here is a good link https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03238 (Affordable, Rapid Bootstrapping of the Space Industry and Solar System Civilization) - read it as well.
Initial survival and race against wear and tear is sure an important problem. However, no need to overestimate the importance of it for things they are using. They do not have to replicate those. Getting in space may require more advanced technologies than living in space - live, and thrive(terms and conditions apply, past performance is no guarantee of future results).
Initial survival is important, but it should not be an issue, as delivering food to the guys is nonsense, meaning they have all those basic things covered. (if not they may die, but it not certain)
So their initial goal is the automation of the production of simple things - make sure you get the latest software from the earth and preferably opensource so you can patch and port it on your new not-so-shiny hardware later on. Automation, some basic one, smart enough, but it does not even look in direction of ai overlords - it is the staple food for the situation. It is a lever for those 30kk people to be able to start the development which can bring recovery of many if not the most of their original technological capacities, limited by that data they have.
And to begin with it, they do not need anything super-advanced, our current level of automation and software is sufficiently good for the purposes.
And staple food of staple food is the energy, the base for any activity, and here low-tech solutions can be quite effective, especially if scaled in the microgravity of space.
Focal points for guys are moons of Mars, the Moon of Earth, an orbital station in orbit of Venus(if they have some).
Moons can provide plenty of materials for implementing first second and 3rd necessity things, for bootstrapping industry in space. Venus is a bit a harder case in that regard, but air scooping can be a great help for them and that carbon they can have, but it depends on technologies.
- creative application of tools is quite important, one guiding computer of a single ship can be used as brains in an operation of transporting asteroid things of materials between planets. Sure engines of ships are used for fine correction, and the main force has to be provided but maybe more primitive devices which have not or almost no guidance or electronics. As in terms of reactive masses - each place has plenty of it not fuel, but mass - which can be used in all kinds of electric engines.
So there are ways, and increasing production, industrial and technological capacities, step by step is possible in this situation and is a main initial goal for them, and it may take few years to get out of an initial crisis and get to the point of being able to trow as much resources at the problems as they need, and never had according to your setting description.
Their goal is just not to die in the next few years, and it should not be a problem for most of them.
P.S. read that arXiv:1612.03238 I linked