Medium-large scale war with some nuclear strikes?
YES IT'S POSSIBLE. BEAR WITH ME.
A dimensional rift suddenly opens and a 20 km-wide rock of mostly unknown material hurls to hit Earth? "This is exactly as prophesied in [insert a holy book]! God has started the Apocalypse!"
Religious group(s), armed with their unwavering faith, quickly seize control amidst the anarchy. They capture the disorganized militaries' facilities and weapons. Then they control the media or whatever's left of it. They absorb the general people into their ranks by promising safety/salvation. "Don't worry, for God will save us the believers!" or "Be strong, together we are able to [do something commanded in holy book that sounds more plausible than bunkering down entire populations], and soon after that God will reopen the dimensional rift right above Earth and send the asteroid back to anywhere it came." Basically, spreading optimism and rallying people together by celestial promise. In hopeless times, religious promises provide the only hope.
The group(s) then very soon after wage holy wars. They believe they're the good guys of the Armageddon, the Final War of the World. They want the eternal record to see them as the protagonists of the last act of the universe's theatrical stage. They may or may not declare themselves officially as a country beforehand, but in reality they're comparable to one already.
From there it's not difficult to imagine United States (or any major world power, give or take) painted as the bad guys in their perspective. Modern imperialism, extracting world resources to be enjoyed by the few ultra-rich; capitalism, putting property above life/modesty/decency/humanity; secularism, separating official national matters from the obligation to follow ways of life; too much liberty that all conservative religious laws were removed/changed/adapted; oppression and/or unjust neighborly treatment; racial motivations; etc.
Nuclear war? Well, does the group originate from nuclear state? I'm not sure on can they acquire nuclear weapons and how much. But, their immense faith may justify a nuclear first-strike to destroy their enemy, if one is available.
Second-strike retaliation may happen, but I'm not certain.
Possibility 1: Group(s) launch enough nuclear weapons to destroy United States entirely (unlikely? I am speculating it's unlikely). United States fully commit their second-strike.
Possibility 2: Group(s) launch small amount of nuclear weapons (more likely, if they can do it at all). United States basically shrugs off and ignores one or two city being obliterated. World is ending and people will die en masse anyway. Either they fully ignore, or retaliate with also small amount just because they can. No full-scale nuclear war, only limited exchange.