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Let us consider a medieval word without magic (there are castles, knights, kings, blacksmithing, sail ships, monotheistic faith) very close to ours. On one unlucky day the borderland deserts are crossed by unfriendly nomads (like medieval Mongols). These nomads raid cities and wreak havoc. The most terrifying part about them is they are carriers of some deadly disease like Typhoid Mary. They have this disease, and they do not suffer from it, and everyone else - yes, even the breath or blood of a nomad can spread contagion.

So, the question is: what can this disease be and how can this wicked protection of nomads be possible?

I leave my thoughts here;, I'll be grateful for your ideas and help.

Hint 1: The nomads' immunity can be result of generations of natural selections, and the real carriers of the disease can be, for example, fleas. They live near nomads for generations, and only the immune one nomads survived.

Hint 2: The shamans of nomads knows the secret cure, and they distribute it among their kin along with the meat of diseased animals.

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This has happened many times. measles, mumps, smallpox, influenza all have had populations where the carriers are mostly immune to strands and when they meet with 'virgin' populations, they decimate them.

It is believed that a large % of the Native American population was wiped out by diseases from Europe before Europeans ever set foot on many lands. Small pox wiped out huge swaths of the Americas. So it isn't that hard to envision a some disease being hosted in a body that has adapted to it while spreading quickly to those who were never exposed.

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    $\begingroup$ And by "a large %", they mean well over 90%! $\endgroup$ – Mason Wheeler Jul 13 '15 at 15:31
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    $\begingroup$ @MasonWheeler The actual numbers varied quite a lot between different areas, and this is compounded by the fact that we do not really know the "actual" numbers, there's a lot of inference going on and still a lot of dispute among the experts as to what the actual numbers may have been. $\endgroup$ – RBarryYoung Jul 13 '15 at 15:52

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