Let's reverse the scenario for a second, and talk about reflections from the Earth onto the Moon. The Earth is not 100% water, and is partially covered by clouds, but since it's a lot bigger than your watery planet the visible water area is similar on average. Plus, the Moon makes a much better "canvas" for any possible reflections since its surface is far more uniform than the Earth's.
Can we see any reflections on the Moon?
Well, maybe the moon is just too far away and the earthshine too dim. What if we get really close to the oceans... like 400 km close?
Note that, in this picture, we're looking at the nadir (Earth-facing side) of the ISS (you can tell from the Leonardo module sticking out the bottom) and that the sunlight is coming from the top of the screen (see the shadow of the Orbiter's wing on the starboard solar array). This means that the scene is partially lit by earthshine; in particular the underside of the radiators is completely lit by reflected sunlight. No patterns are visible.
The pattern of light you're looking for is a type of caustic. Caustics are caused when reflection or refraction off of a curved surface causes light to be concentrated at some points and diffused at others.
You can think of each wave in the surface of the water as a poor approximation to a lens, focusing the light that it refracts or reflects. The kicker is that the approximate focus point is relatively close to the surface. Take a look at this computer rendering:
As you get further and further from the surface, the refracted light becomes defocused and the patterns start to blur together. The distance at which the caustics totally disappear is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the wave dimensions. So even under ideal circumstances, a planet with 10 m waves couldn't have caustics visible at 1 km or more, much less the hundred thousand or million kilometers to another heavenly body.