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In our world, people would sometimes listen to a religious authority/prophet/etc..., because they convincingly say "I have had this XYZ religious experience". You may call it naivete, or trust excess, or lack of skepticism/reason... but someone comes and says "I saw a burning bush", and 1000s of your tribespeople basically take you at your word, if you're charismatic enough. You come and say "I had a revelation", and 1000s of Anabaptists will overthrow their government and start a commune in Munster.

Now, my world I'm building is ALMOST like Earth, with one exception: due to some quirk of nature (biology, or flora, or chemicals), hallucinations are extremely common.

As in:

  • Everyone has experienced multiple hallucinations themselves

  • Everyone has a fairly sure knowledge that those ARE hallucinations when they experience them (mechanics don't matter), meaning that a normal average person will NOT experience a hallucination and mistake it for a supernatural experience or a religious revelation.

    • However, this is not 100% foolproof. Some rare people can experience hallucinations without knowing they are hallucinations.

    • People are already (and always were) evolved with this ability to know they are hallucinating. How doesn't matter.

  • As such, a natural inclination of any un-believer, when a believer comes to them with a tale of something supernatural, is to say "you probably just hallucinated that burning bush/revelation/seeing someone's wounds healed, and you're one of those NON-HAL-SENSER people".

    They know that hallucinations are extremely common, and that some people can't tell the difference - so "hallucination" would be their first go-to explanation for any tale of the weird, supernatural and out of ordinary.

QUESTION:

Howe would religions develop on such a world, where everyone's predisposed to believe in hallucinations over supernatural by their own experience? Would it be a world that is nearly 100% atheistic? Or specific religion types (Buddhism/Taoism?) would dominate?

For the purposes of this question, it doesn't matter if a deity exists or not; but if a deity exists, their ability to do things is such that 100% of the effect they produced can be explained away as a hallucination.


NOTE: I would prefer answers based on real research into religions and psychology. But you don't have to be limited to that.

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  • $\begingroup$ You might look into existing religions that use entheogens. Also, this Radiolab was rather interesting and related. $\endgroup$ – Samuel Jul 10 '15 at 20:45
  • $\begingroup$ I would think that there are things which are both not hallucintaions and sufficiently complex that early tribes would not be able to explain it (e.g. the sun rising, the moon's phases, why birds sing). Such things are explained in religions all the time, I see no reason why they wouldn't need to be explained again. $\endgroup$ – Etheur Jul 13 '15 at 20:12
  • $\begingroup$ How accurate are these people at spotting hallucinations, and how capable of self-defense are they while they are happening? This sounds like the kind of trait that would be evolutionarily selected against pretty strongly, does that matter? $\endgroup$ – Erik Jul 14 '15 at 5:03
  • $\begingroup$ @Erik - majority are 100% accurate. Very small minority are not able to tell the difference (but are raised culturally to assume anything that seems like a hallucination, likely is). As far as evolution, plenty of traits that seem counter-fit have a reason. Like, you know, spending 1/3 of your life essentially dead to the world and unable to defend yourself (aka, sleeping) $\endgroup$ – user4239 Jul 14 '15 at 7:03
  • $\begingroup$ If they can spot the difference between hallucination and not hallucination 100% of the time, it shouldn't be a problem. I was worried they might think that something dangerous is a hallucination when it isn't, that would introduce problems. But if that is out of the way, there shouldn't be a big issue. (It's really like dreaming, then) $\endgroup$ – Erik Jul 14 '15 at 7:58
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My first thought upon reading this question - dreaming. The easiest way to think of the world as you have described it is that daydreaming is very common.

Despite dreams being very common, this hasn't prevented them from being viewed as messages from the gods, etc. Taking a look at the Wikipedia article for dreams shows that many ancient cultures believed in a religious origin of dreams.

So in your world, I would expect something like this to occur:

A, running up to B: Hey, you have got to hear about the vision I just had!

B: You know, you were probably just hallucinating.

A: Well of course I was hallucinating. That's how I saw the vision God sent me!

In short, there's no real reason to assume that commonness and familiarity with hallucinations would make them any less liable to be interpreted religiously than dreams have been.

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You haven't described the level of technology. I'll assume (for no particular reason) that 'tribespeople' indicates the technology is not advanced.

If the person returns from a mountain with tablets of stone that God gave to them, it presumably couldn't have come from a hallucination. People might think that the prophet had had the tablets faked by a craftsperson but, if the returnee was charismatic enough, they would be believed.

So any happening that resulted in the appearance of solid objects would not be mistaken for a hallucination.

You could object that they also suffered from mass hallucinations and they all imagined the tablets, but if that was the case no-one would ever have any clue what was going on. It would be like living in a mental institution. The fabric of society would break down.

Either that or the whole of existence could be one big hallucination (a possibility) in which case it would probably have its own laws of physics and so be predictable. Much like our own world in fact.

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  • $\begingroup$ Yes. I meant from beginning of tribes. $\endgroup$ – user4239 Jul 10 '15 at 22:56
  • $\begingroup$ "mass hallucinations" - that wouldn't happen - remember, MOST people can tell the difference between a hallucination and reality. $\endgroup$ – user4239 Jul 11 '15 at 1:42

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