Yes... and No
If we were talking about a greenhouse gas like CO2 or Methane the answer might be yes (kinda), but there's the thing.
The atmosphere, while very thin compared to the diameter of the planet, is quite thick. How thick depends on how you define the atmosphere. NASA says 60 miles, Space.com says 300 miles, etc.
But you're talking about the troposphere. That's the nice, comfy layer right next to the surface. Temperature calculation in the troposphere is very complicated because it has as much to do with what's under the atmosphere (sand, rocks, plants, water...) as it does what's in the atmosphere (air, greenhouse gasses, clouds...).
The basic problem with greenhouse gasses (I know, O2, I'm getting to that) is that photons hit the Earth, reflect back into the atmosphere, and rather than passing to the higher levels of atmosphere or right back out into space, they're trapped by the greenhouse gasses. And that really affects us humans because, compared to most gasses in the atmosphere (O2, N, etc.), they're heavy.
When you increase O2, it's going to float (ignoring wind and simplifying the situation to make angels weep) above the heavier elements, like greenhouse gasses.
Conclusion #1: O2 won't have nearly the effect on temperature that greenhouse gasses would (and do).
But, what if we, for example, quadrupled the O2 in the atmosphere?
Earth’s atmosphere is composed of about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, 0.9 percent argon, and 0.1 percent other gases. (Source)
So, from one point of view you're moving O2 from 21% to 84% by pushing something else, obviously nitrogen, out of the mix.
Conclusion #2: You can't actually do what you're suggesting without seriously changing the chemical makeup of the Earth — especially its crust. All that nitrogen doesn't just come from plants (where'd they get it in the first place, right?). Without nitrogen a lot of things on Earth stop working. Like life.
Nitrogen and Oxygen have nearly identical atomic construction (being next-door neighbors on the periodic table), which suggests the troposphere would heat up a little bit from the increased density, but not that much.
But from another point of view you could be making the atmosphere more dense. In this regard, you're not increasing O2 from 21% to 84% (requiring you to replace something), you're increasing atmospheric pressure. Some fast math off the top of my head suggests the new percentage is closer to 51%, but you've increased average tropospheric air pressure by more than 50%.
Conclusion #3: Increasing air pressure would definitely increase temperature. Probably a lot — but you're changing the planet again to get it. Increasing air pressure on average requires increasing gravity.
Next we need a chart, courtesy Wikimedia Commons:
Oxygen has displaced various gasses over time, but the operative word is displaced. You can change the composition of the ground (more or less water, more or less flora, even the nature of the soil), but it's a whomping big deal to change the density or diameter of a world.
Conclusion 4: You want to add O2 by displacing another gas, this will basically not change the temperature (other issues would/will have a much greater effect on T), but you do have some practical limits on how much you can displace. 2X feels like the most you could get without violating suspension of disbelief and having to explain how you got it.