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Recently, I decided to work on scientifically plausible superhumans that would have to be quite different from ordinary people from an anatomical point of view and be many times smarter than us.

So one of the main features of this kind of new person would have to be multitasking and simultaneously planning several things at once. So I decided to work on the structure of their central nervous system to give them this very multitasking, but not to make them have a split personality. Why, after some thought, I decided to divide their brains into certain modules, and this is where it became important for me to find out how scientifically viable my idea is: in other words, could it work in reality?

Modules are analogous to human brain regions. Each of them is relatively separate and performs its own type of thinking, to which it is adapted and trained. As many types of thinking, so many modules. Modules similar in function and structure are located side by side and form zones. Different zones have different communication intensity between modules. This is a conventional unit — the modules are not separated from each other anatomically. Let's say it's like aggregates in a microprocessor that perform different functions, but are located on the same chip.

So, the chronus forms a separate independent zone from one module. It has the smallest possible ratio of external dendrites to axons — it generates a signal, but does not receive it. For him, all the conditions are created for the most accurate time counting, due to which my superhumans can count down the seconds and make a mistake on one only on the second day. And there are areas in which intermodular communication is so intense that it even bypasses the human-this is the linguistic zone in which thought is formed.

Due to this, this type of people has three main types of memory :

  • Short-term. This is the memory that is formed from the active connections between the modules of the brain. As a matter of fact, it stores consciousness. The short-term memory of sophonts is more than human, and can operate with 32 criteria at the same time ( the figure is taken from the ceiling, you can substitute any one you like here ), while for a person this figure does not exceed 9. And if we take into account the time memory, the consciousness of sophonts is practically unlimited. An important role in the formation of consciousness in sophonts is played by the morphes module of the brain, which regulates the intensity of intermodular connections. It is closely related to the iprus module, which is directly connected to the VNS, and the chronos module, which acts as an oscillator and chronogroph, allowing for the most accurate time counting. Morfes determines the microsn of modules, the derivation of criteria from short-term memory to temporary memory, the size of short-term memory (roughly speaking, the size of the focus of neurons involved in it) and the lifetime of the criterion, distortion (time perception ).

  • Temporary. This type of memory is located in the most superficial layer of the cerebral cortex. The receptors of its neurons have the highest sensitivity, and therefore information is quickly recorded, but it can not be held for long – after sleep, all temporary memory is cleared, and valuable fragments fall into long-term memory. It contains all the criteria that are being thought about. Modules can only communicate via temporary memory. In it, all information contains meta-data that determines its type: a fragment (semi-processed information that will still be worked on), a code (which carries service information, for example, a command to output from a microsn), a buffer (information that will be useful soon) , and so on. Temporary memory allows you to store an unlimited amount of information for an indefinite, but finite period of time.

  • Long-term memory. In general, it is no different from the human one. The older the information, the deeper the layers of the cortex it is recorded. If the memory is not overwritten, it is erased, and new data is written on top of it. This allows you to clear the memory of old slags over time.

How does the thinking of sophonts work? Imagine a situation where the sophont saw the formula. It is processed in the semantic part of the visual cortex. From it, a request is sent to morfes. It generates an instruction: it sends a sequence of codes to the ALM, according to which the ALM creates an empty process with a given priority, establishes an area for the clipboard in the temporary memory, and says from which register of the temporary memory of the ZK you need to extract data. The ALM addresses the ZK with a copy request, passes the register, and semantic information is sent to it. It contains attributes that are passed to the process. In this case, it is "save the result of calculations before the request, do not save it in the DP (wait for the request, do not go to sleep), do not store the original data after the request (it is not deleted, it is not stored in the DP)" , and so on. The ALM calculates the result for a long time, but when it is completed, the status of the process changes from " in progress "to"completed". The result is written to the new clipboard. The process execution code and the memory register where the result is stored are sent to morfes. Sophont can refer to the answer when it is convenient for him. What is most interesting, it just gets the answer and does not participate in the decision in any way. He may even fall asleep, but ALM will not fall asleep, but will perform calculations.

Explanation of abbreviations:

ALM-algebra-logic module ZK-visual cortex DP — long-term memory ( similar to VP and CP )

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  • $\begingroup$ Sounds like your 're taking a spin at concepts John Meany (Rafael's multiple plex cores spread across the planet) & Peter f. Hamilton (at least one character in The Reality Dysfunction with a single mind & multiple bodies) have played with? $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 16 at 10:46
  • $\begingroup$ Would it be helpful if I mentioned dolphins & their ability to function with either half of their brain while the other half sleeps or that octopuses (sort of) have 9 brains? $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 16 at 11:01
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    $\begingroup$ You've not described anything that the trained human brain can't do at present, except the accurate timekeeping thing. Why not just have them wear a watch? Honestly not sure what you're trying to achieve with this, except to glamorize that which already exists by using a computer like model of description of it. $\endgroup$ Apr 16 at 12:09
  • $\begingroup$ @Draft85 not sure I've ever come across a human brain that can continue to make plans & do calculations while most of the rest of it sleeps but a largely accurate comment nonetheless I think, you're wrong about the timekeeping though, in my early 20's I was able to train my brain to wake up at a specific time decided on b4 going to sleep, can't do it any more mind, lost the knack from lack of need. $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 16 at 12:18
  • $\begingroup$ Quite right we can do that to a certain degree, damned if I know the mechanism of it beyond "circadian rhythms" which doesn't explain much in itself about the precise mechanism. As to planning in sleep, there are examples of humans who differ in that respect, because, as noted in a previous comment, different hemispheres sleep at different times. $\endgroup$ Apr 16 at 12:23
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That's just a human brain but more hungry for energy.

Our brain calculates subconsciously thousands of times every second your balance, your position in space, distance It also calculates your imagination which doesn't just happen magically, it processes your ability to distinguish things.

There's a difference between a camera and human:

Humans sees a hat

Camera sees a dark colored tube shape with a rounded and extruded edges

And these are only a minuscule fraction of the automatic calculations and processes the brain does to create the way you experience the world.

Some people are indeed born with more powerful brains capable of calculating algebra and equations automatically without thinking about it, they are rare and their brains are more energy hungry than a normal brain.

Some people are born unable to distinguish objects and they see the world like a photographic camera, just shapes and colors at various distances, being unable to tell the difference between a person and a wall without first asking themselves "are there any flat and giant people?" or "this skin colored figure is in my home and coming towards me, it must be a member of my family"

Some people remember every single second of their lives, some people can't ever remember their thoughts after a few seconds of thinking them.

The brain has it is has plenty of room for variaty, so feel free to make it more powerful.

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  • $\begingroup$ good answer, welcome $\endgroup$
    – MolbOrg
    Apr 16 at 13:38
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Big brain

Currently our brains are already separated into many different modules. From the higher level, like brain stem, cerebellum and cortex, to the more lower levels of frontal cortex and temporal cortex, to even lower levels of occipital lobe and primary motor cortex. Each can be divided into even further levels, like the motor cortex can be divided in what controls the big toe and what the heel of the foot. Dividing the brain area's isn't strange at all. Also reducing the incoming connections to a brain area is common. The sulci and gyri, the folds and fissures that make the brain look so distinct, are ways to separate brain areas and thus connections.

Memory however is difficult to define. We don't know how it exactly works, but it's certain that it isn't just a single area in the brain. You know words, shapes and colours, how to move your hand to grab a beer. Each is done in a different area of the brain. If you just want what you did at what time it makes more sense, but each of these memories can work closely to many other areas of the brain. Remembering your first kiss will not just engage a tiny area in the limbic system, but if you remember it well you'll see activation in the visual cortex about what you saw (or imagine it), the way your body was standing, the pressure on your lips and what you might've felt. It is a very complex thing.

To achieve what you want it's probably easier to just stuff most of the brain with more neurons. It's already separate in compartments pretty well. It can then also house an extra counting brain. However, after a certain density it might interfere with brain plasticity and thus making (new) memories. To prevent this it's best to make the brains bigger where possible.

Do keep in mind than counting is a very human concept. The counting brain area would be a strange area indeed and I wouldn't know how it can work.

That being said, brain damage and simply looking at certain individuals can already give you an indication that brains can be very powerful already. Einstein his brain wasn't much different from others, yet he proposed some mind bending theories that many smart people today still have trouble following. There might be a certain efficiency underneath, or maybe a way of the two brain halves working better together/not suppressing each other as much. You could just go the route that the reasons behind it are now known, so the brains of your sophonts use this to their advantage.

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