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With the species of Damarian, as found on the list here, there are many different species, which all evolve at about roughly the same time.

Obviously, a huge problem about multiple species evolving simultaneously is that if they're all sapient, they can kill each other off in a deathmatch-esque war. However, I want most of them to have at least some technology, and for them to have survived long enough to accept one another.

So, without further ado, here's what Damarian's surface is like:

  • Larger than Earth (1.5-ish Earth Diameter, roughly 4.5-ish Earth circumference, and thus (Most likely, following surface area calculation rules) several times Earth's surface area).
  • Same percentage of land area and water area as Earth; 71% water (WAY more water than Earth, and also much more area, even with 29% land area)
  • Most likely chillier, due to Damarian's orbit being roughly 384 days (19-ish days longer than Earth's orbit), but if it is, most likely the temperature differences would be minor, only noticeable at the (Much more distant) poles, and would be nearly indistinguishable at the equator.
  • Orbits Aplha Centauri A, also known as Rigel Kentaurus, at almost the same distance as Earth does with the Sun, but more distant enough for an almost 19 day extension of the year (Hopefully, with Alpha Centauri A's bigger size and thus extra heat and light, habitability by humans is possible).
  • Has 6 moons, which are NOT relevant for the question AT ALL; This question assumes the Damarian's orbit (And those of its moons) are stable and life has adapted to 5 moons and the tidal effects they all make. Plus, 3 of them are tiny ex-asteroids, and 2 of the other 3 are less than 1,000 km wide each. The largest is about the same size as our own Moon.
  • Four major landmasses: Gaundar (Mostly in the north of the planet, colder but longer and thinner); Tharizdun (Huge mass split nearly down the middle near the equator, resulting in a huge middle sea, with many hundreds of islands in the surrounding ocean; Sort looks like a fortune cookie that's been opened); Kehez (Comes from the south pole and goes up past the equator, getting within 2,000 miles of Tharizdun's southern edge, and gets fairly close to Gaundar on its northern edge); and Dendar (Southern temperate zone, close-ish to Kehez on the opposite side from Tharizdun). I'll be referring to the continents for the habitats.

Here is what Damarian's non-sapient life is like:

  • VERY rich plant life (In the energy and nutrients easily available from the plant); fruit and nut eating herbivores only need to eat for about 30 minutes each day, leaf and fungus eaters only need 2-ish hours of feeding daily, and even grazers and grain eaters only need to eat about 4 hours a day, but typically spend most of their day eating anyway (Hey, why not?)
  • This rich plant life means herbivores can sustain HUGE populations, which leads to much larger population counts of carnivores, which, along with Damarian's size, means that Damarian can hold much more biomass than Earth.
  • The animals provide prey for the Stone Age peoples, who occasionally met. Being Stone Age people, each interaction was different: Some meetings ended with fight, others with trading.

So, using this question, I know that there are a few things the sapients need to keep themselves from killing each other: Different habitats (Easy, with Damarian being THAT big), but some way to interact often (I'm thinking they all can survive just fine in most climates, but usually live in two or three particular habitats), or have them have different niches or needs.

With all of my species in order of appearance, here's their habitats and general niches (During the Paleo- and Mesolithic Ages):

Volrortheans: Either chilly, Scandinavian-esque locales (Closer to the coast) on Gaundar or Kehez, or warm, Polynesian-like coasts on equatorial Kehez, and temperate grasslands of Kehez. They are typically megafauna hunters in smallish groups (4 to 12 adults, half that many youngsters).

Maravneans: Temperate plains and forest of Kehez, usually near rivers; Usually fish and hunt/gather.

Asterians: Hot deserts and temperate plains of equatorial Kehez, typically hunt and trap smaller critters and smaller members of megafauna species.

Amazoneans: Warm jungles and plains of Kehez. Trap and gather in jungles, hunt in plains.

Madraeans: Chillier forests (Like taiga) and plains of southern Kehez. Usually hunt, but also gather in the summer.

Fenireans: Small islands and plains near the coast of Kehez and Tharizdun. Fish and gather, almost to the exclusion of meat.

Phanerae: Mountains in warm areas and plains of southern Gaundar. Hunt in the plains, gather in the foothills.

Elves (In general): Colder coastal forests, and plains, unlike the Madraeans, who stay away from the coast, but still on Kehez. Usually gather more than hunt, usually at night.

Dwarves: Mountains in southern Kehez, and nearby plains. Hunt and trap in foothills at night.

Orcs: Hostile badlands of central Tharizdun or plains. Mostly hunt, and gather very little.

Tieflings: Deserts around the Tharizdun badlands, and plains. Usually hunt and trap at night, like the Asterians over on Kehez.

Aasimar: Forests of Dendar, near Kehez, plus plains. Hunt and gather at night.

Aeritheans: Didn't evolve on Damarian, like the linked question (The first one) mentioned.

Avari: Forests of southwestern Gaundar and plains. Obligate carnivores who hunt pretty much exclusively, though they enjoy fruit and will gather it, as opportunity permits.

Naven: Forests of northwestern Gaundar and plains. Obligate herbivores and only gather, usually at night to avoid Avari.

Maer: The areas coastal to the Ilsensine sea (The sea that's splitting Tharizdun). Typically fish and gather in the sea, and hunt on land at night for luxury meat (Land animals).

Formians: Forest and deserts of southern Dendar, and plains. Usually gather and hunt as a near hive mind (They have the ability to very quickly transmit ideas and messages they want to send in perfect clarity), based on a central hive.

Vaeran: Forests of northern Dendar, and plains and deserts. Hunt and gather at night.

Arachne: Forests and mountains of northeast Dendar, plus plains. Trap and gather at night.

Pterians: Mountains and plains of central Dendar. Hunt from the air, and gather periodically.

Centaurs: Plains and forests of central Dendar. Hunt on the run, and gather as opportunity permits.

Ashara: Plains and foot hills of Tharizdun's northern wing. Hunt mostly at night.

Leonar: Cold plains and deserts of Dendar. Hunt and gather.

Zavran: Hot plains and deserts of Dendar. Hunt and gather at night.

Mitarn: Plains and deserts of southern Gaundar. Hunt almost exclusively, but gather sometimes.

Ceana: Swamps of the northern edge of Tharizdun's southern wing, and plains. Hunt and gather, and fish.

Kobolds: Forests and plains of Tharizduns southern wing (On the southern edge). Trap and gather and night.

Dragonkin: Mountains and plains of western Tharizdun (The west part is the part where the wings meet). Hunt and gather.

So, hopefully, these niches and habitats allow them to survive together, yet not kill each other until they develop civilization or accept each other.

Please, if you can review my ideas, and possibly even suggest better ideas, that'd be great.

PS magic does exist on Damarian, but it'd be better if there is no magic involved in this. Bonus points go to anyone who doesn't suggest using magical means for keeping them all alive.

UPDATE: I'm pretty sure you all don't know how big 1.5x Earth's diameter is. Damarian is MASSIVE, with huge swaths of land possibly splitting groups.

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    $\begingroup$ The detail here is slightly overkill. You can probably get away with linking to your previous question and leaving off some of the world details and most of the species details. $\endgroup$
    – DWKraus
    Apr 15 at 15:20
  • $\begingroup$ These aren't exact matches, but might be useful. worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/177004/… and worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/34408/… and worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/85101/… There are many more along this same vein. $\endgroup$
    – DWKraus
    Apr 15 at 15:52
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    $\begingroup$ @John is right in his answer, you have too many species for plausibility // if it wasn't for your helpful enforcer deities keeping the peace & keeping them apart until they're ready to be in your story // they're like the sword of Damocles though, they cut all Gordian knots & you needn't have asked :P $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 16:07
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    $\begingroup$ Accepting an answer in less than 24 hours is considered poor etiquette on the SE because it's a global site and that prevents people in other countries from answering. It also has a chilling effect on people giving additional answers. $\endgroup$
    – DWKraus
    Apr 15 at 16:23
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    $\begingroup$ My problem isn't that there are too many species (though I think there are), but rather that they are all arriving at the same stage at the same time. $\endgroup$
    – NomadMaker
    Apr 16 at 1:25
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Humans have competed with one another for millennia, empires, cities, nations fighting for the same land and the same resources.

In a way humans can be parallel to different species.

Lions and tigers don't live together because they would steal prey from one another until the bigger and faster feline wins and the weak dies.

But the world is huge, that's why we can have both lions and tiger on this same planet.

That's why even though Japan has tried for centuries to kill off China, they ended up only pushing one another to develop new denfeses and smarter and deadlier weapons.

The same example can be made with many nations.

Today we have about 201 countries, most of which compete with one another for the same resources, most of which have killed one another since the dawn of time.

Is the world homologous of one single type of people? Clearly not.

You can have as many intelligent species on your planet as you want.

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  • $\begingroup$ You may not be correct, saying you're a newbie here, but I like your thinking! I might even do a mix of your answer and the one about krakens $\endgroup$ Apr 15 at 16:36
  • $\begingroup$ @TheDarkeLorde the confusion may seed from the idea that intelligence is a niche... But intelligence is not a niche but simply an attribute like height, color, size.... Many tall animals exist on the planet... Many long, green animals exist on this planet. Many intelligent animals can evolve. $\endgroup$
    – user84912
    Apr 15 at 18:46
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That is far to many species without some handwavium

you might be able to have 4 or 5 species by separating them onto different continents. Intelligent species can exploit all sorts of environments so they will come into large scale conflict before they have anything beyond stone age technology, Humans wiped out at least two other hominid species with nothing but stone tools. The only solution is to keep them separated until they have more advanced technology, but you have way too many species to do that. At most you can get 1 species per continent assuming your continents are far enough apart they need advanced boats to travel between them.

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  • $\begingroup$ Here is my handwavium: Deities also exist in the world and kept the species mostly separated until they REALLY got going. Then, they slowly introduced them to each other. That good? $\endgroup$ Apr 15 at 15:28
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    $\begingroup$ @TheDarkeLorde deities that can enforce rules is enough, they can keep them from killing each other. $\endgroup$
    – John
    Apr 15 at 15:31
  • $\begingroup$ "you might be able to have 4 or 5 species by separating them onto different continents" Yep, geographic separation (as in Australian species compared to elsewhere) // coupled with non-competing ecological niches (i.e. land & sea) & a big dollop of luck (they all reach sapience around the same time) could get you a handful more perhaps, the more you add the more handwavium you need though. $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 15:52
  • $\begingroup$ It's unlikely to be stable, they'll likely kill each other off or outcompete each other, but that can take generations so there can be a window of hundreds if not thousands of years to sit the storey in. $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 15:58
  • $\begingroup$ @Pelinore any species living in peace goes extinct. Animals need conflict, war, predation, scarcity and even familial competition to be successful and remain alive. So deities of peace better mind their own business. $\endgroup$
    – user84912
    Apr 15 at 16:19
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Let's take a 'Krack' at it:

There are a couple of conditions that would need to be met for this to make sense. I'll try to stay away from magic, space travel, panspermia and genetic engineering. This many species will still require some fairly generous assumptions.

First, you need to group your species together and decide which bear enough similarity to each other to have been related at some point. As many groups as you can come up with is how many different evolutions of intelligent life you need. Each group descends from a common ancestor and then undergoes speciation to become a fully unique species. Even for a big planet, this is too many species to evolve completely independently.

So here is the narrative. There were large oceanic apex predators (Krakens) that destroyed all ships. These predators made exchange between continents virtually impossible short of continental drift. The upshot is that your various sentient species starter groups were able to evolve independent of each other and not wipe each other out.

But your world had a couple of mass-extinction events (especially in the sea) that threw this for a loop. The first occurred perhaps 1-3million years ago, when your races had already become sentient and evolved a rudimentary civilization OR there were wide-spread land bridges/handwavium transports/whatever allowing transfer and spread of intelligences. The krakens were virtually wiped out, and the races all spread rapidly to try and survive the ecological catastrophe. Civilization did NOT survive, but the various species did, each finding themselves in a new ecological niche after the Kraken population recovered and once again isolated the groups. Some co-evolved in the presence of other intelligent species, while others were limited to narrower environments (akin to the hobbit people of Earth).

With a second die-off of the Krakens more recently, the now-speciated races were once again able to come into contact with each other, but for whatever reason, they are not eliminated by competition (an earlier transmission event of knowledge to get all your races up to speed? Perhaps one race can fly well enough to spread civilization to the world. This fits well with a benevolent dragon species).

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  • $\begingroup$ "fits well with a benevolent dragon species" or any benevolent species that developed hydrogen air ships. $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 16:27
  • $\begingroup$ @Pelinore I certainly considered that, it's why I left the wording open to interpretation. I got a fantasy feel from the story line and thought airships weren't a fit OR violated "magic" limits so I didn't explicitly state it as such. I think the earlier question does talk about busses, though, but they could be magitech. $\endgroup$
    – DWKraus
    Apr 15 at 16:33
  • $\begingroup$ "got a fantasy feel from the story line and thought airships weren't a fit OR violated "magic" limits" nah! // I used air ships all the time in my AD&D phantasy settings // how do you think a Lurker Above flies? // I had whole societies that harvested the gas from them for their air ships :)) $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 16:39
  • $\begingroup$ @Pelinore While I was a fan of spelljammer, and love airships, I was just trying to keep the answer magic-pristine, and leave the handwavium up to the OP. Most of my non-spelljammer ships were levitation-powered sailing ships. $\endgroup$
    – DWKraus
    Apr 15 at 16:42
  • $\begingroup$ I never liked Spelljammer myself // when I say airship I do mean airship // If you accept that lurkers use hydrogen (or perhaps helium) then it's entirely magic pristine & the only handwaving is how much of this gas a beast that size really needs :) $\endgroup$
    – Pelinore
    Apr 15 at 16:52
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Sanctuary planet.

It has only been for the past several hundred years that Damarian has existed with its current variety of sentients. The Aeritheans showed up with their own ship but of the rest only the Dragonkin are true natives, the rest having been moved to this planet. This is also true for a number of the nonsentient aquatic and terrestrial species.

The motivations of the entities who moved these many races here is unclear. There exist ruins and remains on the planet which seem to have been made by sentient races different yet from any currently on the planet - the disappeared species possibly having been wiped out, or possibly removed to other locales by the same forces that brought them. Damarian might be used as a staging ground to store and then resettle sentient races which were relocated from their worlds of origin. It is possible that the planet is a zoo or collection. It might be an art project.

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  • $\begingroup$ This is quite possibly the best answer considering the various exotic and unusual sentient species of Damarian. It could be the only reasonable explanation, as otherwise so many strange species is likely impossible.... $\endgroup$
    – Alendyias
    Apr 15 at 23:49
  • $\begingroup$ Cool idea... I want Damarian to have EVOLVED these humanoids, not have them ferried over by aliens. But thanks for the answer, @Wilik! $\endgroup$ Apr 16 at 16:21
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Depends on your geography you need to have land and sea Barriers that separate the species so they're not Absorbed or exterminated by the other Species. If they're separated long enough And civilization on each continent develops a then the less likely to destroy one another Completely Of course that doesn't mean there won't be conflict One of the reasons that a civilized society is Less likely to exterminate another species is because they Recognize The usefulness of said species. You're likely to see a lot of Attempts to domesticate/ Inslave other species.

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  • $\begingroup$ I was thinking about this. There used to be 9 species in our genus Homo but once sapiens got mobile we wiped out / absorbed the others. That could work here too. $\endgroup$
    – Willk
    Apr 18 at 14:49

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