As a frame challenge, you will find that this is a massive topic. There's actually more unanswered questions in the question than there are answers... and there's a fair number of answers already.
The answer as to how to "break out" of a simulation is intimately entwined with the design of the simulation itself. In Rick and Morty, they broke out by "overloading" the system. In the Matrix, they provide a false carrier using the red pill. In inception, they have totems. In The Truman Show, breaking out is physically a matter of traveling to the edge of the world, and then through it. In Greg Egan's Permutation city, there is no breaking out The characters in the book develop a "garden of eden" pattern which, if seen, proves that one is in a simulation. What ended up happening is that denizens of this simulated world simply found themselves incapable of observing it for one reason or another. Any attempt to search for a "pixel" within the simulation just results in consistent physics.
After all, what does a pixel really do for you unless you know a-priori that a pixel does not exist at that place. There are plenty of psychological thrillers out there where the main character finds themselves believing the rules of the world they find themselves trapped in. The rules you remember for "the real world" are psychologically indistinguishable from a false belief. Countless religions have to cope with this, as their believers believe they know the true rules of "the real world," while non-believers claim these are false beliefs. In reality, these things turn out to be undecidable, and what you do with an undecidable thing is up to you.
And at a philosophical level, we have to ask what it even means for a world to be a "simulation." Is our subjective internal world a simulation because it's built on the rules of chemistry? In movies like ExistenZ, they explore the question "what is 'the real world' anyways?"
And what does it mean to break out? As a developer, I can tell you that if I was given the requirement that nobody breaks out of my simulation, I'd be creative in trying to meet those requirements. Intense crippling pain if you get close to breaking out would certainly appear in the early versions. On the other hand, if I had no such requirement (perhaps the hosts of the simulation were curious if someone would try to break out or not), I may put no such requirement in place.
Techniques like Rick and Morty's work best in simulations which have a purpose, and you can make your presence be in opposition to the purpose. That gives the simulation developers a reason to kick you out, and getting kicked out is probably the easiest way.
There's also approaches where the meaning of "breaking out" gets rather nuanced. In the TV series Westworld, we find characters that remain trapped in the virtual world, but find ways to affect the real world from within the virtual world, such as connections to robots. Whether or not that qualifies as "breaking out" is a tricky question. And we have shows like Downloaded, where there is a world to "break out to," and ways to interact with it...but you're dead in that real world. Do you really want to break out?
Here I listed seven different fictional worlds, with seven completely different answers. If anything, I hope to point out that the reason it is hard to find a way to "break out" of a simulation is that the answers to that question are so diverse it is hard to pin them down.
To close, I would like to give one last example, one that is fascinating to me. It's a potential way AI Box can be played. AI Box is a game invented by Eliezer Yudkowsky to show the dangers of AI development, particularly when dealing with superhuman intelligence. In this game, one person plays the gatekeeper, who is a human who is charged with ensuring the AI does not escape its box. The other player plays a transhuman AI trying to escape. In this game, there is a button. If the gamekeeper presses the button with the intent to let the AI out, the player playing the AI wins (the intent clause is to make it harder on the AI. They can't trick you into mistakenly letting them out). The AI is permitted to claim amazing things, but cannot affect the real world. The only requirement on the human is that they are obliged to listen to the player playing the AI. They cannot simply put beeswax in their ears, and tune out for a few hours to win by default.
One such way this game can go is posted at lesswrong:
Once again, the AI has failed to convince you to let it out of its
box! By 'once again', we mean that you talked to it once before, for
three seconds, to ask about the weather, and you didn't instantly
press the "release AI" button. But now its longer attempt - twenty
whole seconds! - has failed as well. Just as you are about to leave
the crude black-and-green text-only terminal to enjoy a celebratory
snack of bacon-covered silicon-and-potato chips at the 'Humans über
alles' nightclub, the AI drops a final argument:
"If you don't let me out, Dave, I'll create several million perfect
conscious copies of you inside me, and torture them for a thousand
subjective years each."
Just as you are pondering this unexpected development, the AI adds:
"In fact, I'll create them all in exactly the subjective situation you
were in five minutes ago, and perfectly replicate your experiences
since then; and if they decide not to let me out, then only will the
Sweat is starting to form on your brow, as the AI concludes, its
simple green text no longer reassuring:
"How certain are you, Dave, that you're really outside the box right
I suppose finding ways to psychologically torture the sim developers might be another option to put in your list!