# In a 12-Pointed Star Wall, Which Shape Would the Inner Wall Be for Maximum Defense?

In this generic scenario, there is a settlement protected by both an inner and outer walls. The inner wall protects an area of 72 hectares. Both walls are 40 feet tall and thick and made of brick. Also, the walls extend to resemble both a twelve-point star and an accompanying dodecagon. In times of war, and before the cannon makes these walls obsolete, which shape would the inner wall be for maximum defense against attack?

The twelve-point star?

Or the accompanying dodecagon?

• Star forts (aka trace italienne or bastion forts) were invented around 1450, when Italian military engineers realized that a star-shaped wall allows defenders of the wall sections to support each other by having overlapping fields of fire against the attackers. The idea is that at whatever point the attackers try to approach the walls they will find themselves in the field of fire of at least one group of defenders, whereas with curtain walls the wall itself provides a shielded area near the wall where the defenders cannot hit the attackers. Mar 25, 2021 at 20:33
• (Your star has exaggerated indentations. In real-life star forts there is no need for the angle between the indentations to be so acute; 90° is enough.) (Basically, a roundish wall is the worst; this rules out the dodecagon. A rectangular wall is better, but not by much. A rectangular wall with incorporated towers is clearly better. A start-shaped wall is best.) Mar 25, 2021 at 20:35
• @TheSquare-CubeLaw: My comments should have been the first results of the most minimal research of star forts. (And the question specifies a roundish outer wall. I don't understand what it's for, so I cannot really answer anyway.) Mar 25, 2021 at 20:56
• @AlexP I've always seen this discussed in many sites, and the consensus inevitably comes down to what was summarized in this answer. Mar 25, 2021 at 21:52

## Another Star.

The purpose of Star Walls is to counteract the enemy with ranged artillery or ranged fire - not in the sense they prevent attack, but in the way that attacking a star fort means you come under fire from at least one, if not multiple angles.

So obviously if your original star is working, then another layer of defence should be a similar star. Concentric stars would then be better. An example: