Living things use externally sourced materials very often and biological systems use minerals and complex compounds taken wholesale from food.
So, it's entirely possible and precedented that an organism will make use of an externally supplied material that has the required chemical or biological binding properties it needs for a process, even if that substance has never been used by the species previously.
The first thing I thought of when reading the question is the deep-sea snail that incorporates iron sulfide into its shell and foot. They live near thermal vents where the required material occurs naturally and they incorporate it into their physical makeup in a way that is not similar to other species in their biological group. Some really cool photos in image search.
Another example is the poison dart frog famous for its toxic secretion which it doesn't produce itself. They get their defining defense from eating organisms that do sythesize the poison. In captivity they continue to function without being poisonous.