I've tried to find real world examples where something like Maasai Tribes, or groups of a similar life style, that live more or less alongside a high-tech civilisation, but I haven't been able to. This is the best discussion I've seen.
Obviously Maasai aren't actually considered stone age, but they're the nearest modern example I can think of that fit the idea of two vastly different technology levels that live within 1-2 days travel of a civilisation that have modern or, in my exact scenario post-modern/post-capitalism (near post-scarcity, ubiquitous space age level technology, high levels of automation etc.) society.
In my exact example, the stone age civilisation are actually starfish aliens whose 'down from the trees' moment was emerging from the ocean due to the seafloor around oceanic vents lifting up to shallows and eventually just coming to live on land permanently. I'm assuming that although they're radically different in physiology, some universalities like wanting food/shelter would mean they could still have enough common ground that they could interact in some way. And that the alien natives would be mostly self-sufficient.
Along with this, is that the high-tech civilisation exists almost solely from a landed/grounded generation ship that is almost entirely self sufficient. The planet they are on is very low on resources, so very little of the local flora/fauna is edible or palatable. They have self-contained agriculture on-board, that is almost 100% automated, and can manufacture other supplies they need currently. Because they're post-capitalism, I don't see them being very expansionist, but I can't say they wouldn't be evangelical.
For the Starfish aliens, probably don't understand the tech, but won't be for or against acquiring some. This is something I'd like to see real world parallels to. Bear in mind because these are physically starfish aliens, it's highly unlikely, for instance, that they'd be able to hold and definitely couldn't point a gun or other 'tool' in a comfortable way. This is definitely a deviation from the real world.
I'm not expecting concrete directions on how to world build this, but I've not come across any decent analogous examples to work from, so I am still looking for some generalisable points on how these two societies would influence and interact with each other, things like culture, trade, changing use of geography etc.