There is a highly militarized nation of 300k people between 0 and 60 years old – technology level similar to the Romans. For climate, think the Mediterranean with plenty of freshwater (streams & therefore irrigation) and sunlight.
Military service starts at 10 years old. Everyone is enlisted. This is a highly controlled society with very little migration, living under highly regimented rules. These rules are enforced by an external organization so corruption at the state level is non-existent.
They need to produce 61% of the calories required for their own 300k people plus (via trade) another 200k people.
It meets this obligation via wheat, sheep and goats.
They have 100,000 full-time farmers and 77,000 people that never farm (including the children). All other soldiers farm 3 days a week on average
Assuming there is no limit to quality farming/grazing land available, is it possible for essentially 139,000 farmers to produce enough wheat, sheep and goats (milk/butter/meat) to produce an average of 1,400 calories for 500k people?
Thank you for the comments and answers. To try to answer some of them:
The entire landmass is approximately the size of the island of Ireland. About half of that belongs to the nation in question. They garrison the border but there are now wars so they train and farm.
Whilst working on the farm they would live there so food would be consumed locally for 139k out to the 300k. Of the rest 77k would be within a few days travel and the rest within a weeks travel. They have good transportation by road and water.
Women are treated no differently than men, unless pregnant, partially making up the 77k non farmers. Children are raised much more by the community than now so parents can continue to work and train.