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In my book series, there is a planet called Ryu 108 that is almost entirely a water world. It is the furthest planet from its star (a supergiant), and has a relatively cold-but-still-habitable climate for the most part.

What I am asking about is the tiny amount of landmass on this planet (around 150 square miles (388.5 square kilometers) of islands: 2 main ones and a few hundred tiny islands and islets). I wanted these areas to be very ecologically diverse even though they are very small in size, hosting differing biomes including boreal forests, temperate rainforests, mammoth steppes, cold deserts, geyser fields, bogs, redwoods, tundra, and volcanoes. How would I be able to fit all of these different biomes into such a small area and have some small civilizations develop here? Could I even do this at all?

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    $\begingroup$ Yes! Hawaiian style. worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/174486/… $\endgroup$
    – Willk
    Jan 24 at 20:32
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    $\begingroup$ 400 square kilometers is enough for maybe 10 tigers (2 males, 8 females) or 10 cheetahs or 10 lions. Or 3 tigers, 3 cheetahs and 4 lions. You get the idea. Anyway, waaaay too small for a healthy self-sustaining population. Plus if you have the tigers you cannot have wolves; or if you have wolves, then no tigers. Etc. $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Jan 24 at 23:51
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If you have a steady increase in height resulting in an island raising from the seaside up to the top of the mountains you can have quite some diverse biomes.

For example this is in Hawaii

Mauna Kea top

The place is kind of stereotypical for sun, beach and swimsuits, right?

If it was located on the trail of some prevalent wind it could also be that the side facing the humidity reach wind would experience more intense precipitations while the side down wind would have a drier climate.

And if the mountain is/was a volcano, you will end up with the geyser and other geothermal activities.

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Look at New Zealand

One of the more interesting places I've visited is "Franz Joseph" and "Fox glacier" in NZ, it's 2 glaciers that's flown down the hill into a forest:

enter image description here

Combine this with a volcano, and you have a source of heat, cold, and moisture, all compacted into a tight space.

Surround an area with mountain range to compact snowfall into ice to charge the glacier, and create a "dry-side" for your desert.

Here's a rough idea:

enter image description here

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