The atmospheric entry would be the easy part: meteorites don't get hot on the inside:
"Rocky asteroids are poor conductors of heat [...].Their central regions remain cool even as the hot outer layers are ablated away." — Donald Yeomans, manager of NASA's Near Earth Object program at JPL.
The next part would be getting out, so we'd need to posit that the meteorite split on impact, or was helpfully busted by a curious human.
Surviving the space trip would be tough, but one can conceive of seeds or spores, maybe even cells, that might remain viable, especially if the species had evolved to tolerate high radiation levels and long dry cold.
Now, the hardest part: how did it get in there to begin with? On earth a seed (or fossil) could be trapped in sedimentary rock, but it's hard to imagine sedimentary rocks surviving a planet's breakup as anything more than a cloud of sand. Perhaps the clump of sedimentary rock was swept by a fast lava stream into an ocean, where it cooled quickly enough that the seed remained viable, and then later the whole assemblage of seed inside sedimentary inside igneous got ejected in a cataclysm and sent our way like a peanut M&M tossed at a seagull. In a hard sci-fi story I think I'd buy it. Can't guess what a planetary scientist would say.