Humans are animals, larger than a mouse. (changed by OP)
If you meant to ask "What would be the repercussions of all animals larger than a mouse other than humans dying around 16/17th century in a certain region or across the globe?"
Loss of all food animals.
Loss of all Marine fisheries.
Loss of all work animals. Most notably loss of horses (transport) and plough animals.
Loss of certain classes of materials. No more leather. No more wool. Not even bone. (exceptions, see beefburger, below)
Food, and society:
People would starve in their masses. Agriculture without the ability to plough will produce much less food, transport of crops without any beast of burden will be incredibly problematic.
In that era water transport was a bit primitive, but functional. But there were no mechanical transport of any kind yet, so the very best we could do would be hand carts.
Equally, plowing could be done by hand, or with human pulling teams. Reinstitution of slavery, anyone? A suitable underclass of humans designated as beast-of-burden?
Humans could survive. Civilization will be set back a couple thousand years, and will have a very hard time recovering with no access to any domesticated animals. Unless you turn your slaves into domesticated animals? Not my sort of world, where subjugated classes take on the roles of horses, oxen and beefburgers.
Loss of all animals larger than a mouse?
So. No predators, no raptors. finches are fine, doves, maybe. crows & the like are gone.
and... mice are FINE. Insects are FINE. Fortunately so are bats. Phew! Between them and other insects, there will be a measure of control of insects.
With none of their predators remaining, small rodents will go berserk. First a couple seasons of population boom, then complete denuding of the countryside, then utter devastation of a mass dieoff. This cycle may repeat, or may end in a permanent wasteland.