I am building a habitable terrestrial 'super-earth' type planet. Ideally, my lifeforms should be primarily carbon-based and their biochemistry relatively similar to Terran biochemistry, but with slight modifications given their different environment (Atmospheric composition, Orbital characteristics and physical characteristics of their planet etc.) I am having difficulty determining exactly how the different environment would constrain/expand the possible biochemistry of my organisms, examples: what amino acids or amino acid analogues would be favoured in protein synthesis, what molecule/molecules would be most suited to transport oxygen around the organism, what compounds could work as Nucleic acid analogues given the different atmospheric conditions.
Basically, how to determine whether the organism would be able to exist and what biochemistry would "work" (be able to function) if various atmospheric conditions were altered such as the Ph of the oceans and/or addition of toxic compounds to atmosphere or biosphere. Although a have quite a bit of knowledge when it comes to Terran biochemistry and biology (so please feel free to explain in as comprehensive/complex a way as possible) I am struggling specifically with this topic of 'Xenobiochemistry'. I will explain the relevant characteristics of my planet below:
My planet's characteristics:
The planet is a super-earth type terrestrial planet with 1.5 times the gravity of earth, 1.48 times the radius and 3.15 times the mass. It is more volcanically active than earth and its atmosphere has relatively high concentrations of sulphuric molecules, CO2 and methane as a result (Exact numbers below.) The planet orbits a stable close-binary pair of dwarf stars at a distance of 0.412 AU. The planet's atmosphere is pressured around 1.7 Atm and its surface temperature is around 30 C (90 F) (Due in part to the greenhouse effect of the many volcanic compounds in the atmosphere and the increased bond albedo of the planets surface.)
Its precise atmospheric composition is as follows:
73.69% Molecular Nitrogen
24.50% Molecular Oxygen
0.05% Carbon Dioxide
0.05% Water vapour
0.05% Hydrogen sulphide
0.02% Sulphur Dioxide and Trioxide
The Ammonia in the atmosphere is due to its use as an early biochemical defence mechanism in unicellular organisms in the early oceans.
Biological building block: Primarily carbon-based.
Biological solvent: Ammonia-Water mixture (2-3% ammonia)
Nucleic acid/Nucleic acid equivalent: ?
Protein structure: ?
Oxygen transport: ?
Energy storage: ?
Cell structure: ?
Also, please just ask for whatever other characteristics you would need to answer the question, as I have calculated many, many of my planets qualities and features.
this is a long description, but I really hope someone can help me understand how to determine which biochemistries work in which alien world's, such as this one. thanks in advance. (: