I am writing about a magical-realistic city in Latin America that is very dusty, See: A brief introduction for visitors
How do modern humans adapt their lives to urban environments with frequent dust storms?
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This is Sydney in December 2019 as it was surrounded by bushfires. Everything has a fine layer of Ash on it. Everything is dirty and messy. Even the beaches were covered in black:
So what changed in Australian cities during this smoking that is relevant to your question?
(Actually "when" not "if" - our politicians don't really believe in climate change)
Is your dust a metaphor?
Sometimes writers want to comment on the real world by way of their fiction. It can be painful and provocative to use real names of things, like corruption or sexism or inequity. These weighty subjects come with colossal mountains of baggage, which turn off some readers entirely and provoke others to rage from he standpoint of their present ideas and beliefs.
One can use fiction and within the fiction, metaphor, to make sly commentary on such important but difficult sociocultural matters, possibly informing and enlightening readers. The standpoint of a fictional world is not so provocative. Have your people interact with the dust in a way that echos the commentary you wish to make.
I could imagine a dusty city in a world like this where all the miserable people do nothing but suffer and rub their eyes. Perhaps one individual sets up bushes around his house that block the wind, and the dust does not come in to his house. Angered, at the end of the story his neighbors destroy the bushes.
Or a scenario where there is frenzied and expensive activity to abute and mitigate the effect of the dust in town, sweeping and vacuuming and filtering. The dust is being produced from agricultural activities by people who do not live in town.
I could imagine a city of haves and have nots, where the haves are able to ascend to high towers and forget about the dust and the have nots live coated with it.
I could imagine a city where an amazing technological achievement clears the dust forever only to learn that their sun is lethally bright, and their world had been protected from it by the dust.