Possible in theory, but not really in practice.
In theory, a bacterium could be engineered with some sort of acoustic piezo transducer - for example, a double cellular wall with vesicles and (say) a sodium or calcium "soup" inside. A sound wave of the appropriate frequency, which means in the very far ultrasound, would squeeze the soup from one end of the cell to the other, causing an electric potential to be created.
This in turn could be used to "recharge" ADP molecules into ATP, thereby making cellular respiration and oxygen supply unnecessary.
IMPORTANT: The bacterium would still need food to reproduce (nutrients supply both energy and "building materials"; sound waves would only supply energy). The bacterium would need to be large and have huge energy reserves to continue living when not exposed to ultrasound (it might have very basic oxidation capabilities, to be able to barely survive during silences. In that state, the bacterium would need oxygen again).
Transferring energy through ultrasound is nothing weird, we transfer kinetic energy to fluids and quartz dust via ultrasound to sterilize scalpels and the like.
The rub here is sound attenuation - ultrasound do travel through the human body and the air (we can get an ultrasound scan after all, and bats can echolocate mosquitoes), but not so well. To get an ultrasound scan you need the transducer to be pressed against the skin, with lubricating gel in the middle for good measure.
To drive enough energy to bacteria in the body, the sheer quantity of sound energy that would need to be pumped would be awesome, and harmonics would probably shatter everything in a considerable radius. Also, larger structures (such as the human body all around the bacteria) would almost certainly incur some kind of damage.