This is essentially a task of categorization. You're asking if we can create a list of categories which encompasses all objects. Now, in the real world, 'objects' don't exist. They're artifacts of our perception's heuristics. And language, being a human creation, will always fail to perfectly describe the universe. It certainly isn't the universe's foundation. But in a fantasy world, this is all possible, since the author is the supreme god. You can hand-wave as much as you want, as long as you make it believable.
Here's my suggestion: use a list of no more than eight items, since the human memory is less effective with larger lists. Then, make those items broad enough to collectively encompass all things -- and make excuses for the things not explained in this way.
raw matter (stones, stars, planets, water, etc.)
creatures (plants, animals, humans)
concepts (words, gods, nations, emotions)
tools (weapons, implements, buildings, some ideas)
spaces (rooms, regions, dwellings )
So, to use your examples, knives, swords, and doors are all tools, but doors, together with houses (which are also tools) participate in the creation of rooms, which are spaces.