Here are some examples of large wheeled vehicles.
The following comes from an article in a magazine of Maryland history I read.
The Netherlands established their New Netherland colony along the Hudson River in modern New YOrk in 1614.
The English established a colony called Maryland on both sides of the upper Chesapeake Bay in 1634.
Sweden stablished a small New sweden colony on both sides of the Delaware River in the future Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey from 1638 to 1655.
The Dutch in the New Netherland colony conquered New sweden in 1655.
English forces captured New Netherland in 1664, but the dutch recaptured it in 1673, and it was returned to England by a treaty in 1674.
So for thirty years the Chesapeake Bay was part of the English colonies of Virginia and Maryland, while the Delaware Bay was part of first Swedish and then Dutch colonies. And trade between those colonies was desired by the colonists but forbidden by law.
Sailing ships with trade goods out the mouth of one bay, along the Atlantic coast, and into the mouth of the other bay would be too flagrant a violation of trade rules, so the secret trade involved carrying cargo across the Delmarva Peninsula. Small ships sailed up creeks as far as they could go, and then were loaded onto giant carts hauled by ox teams and carried to the nearest creeks flowing into the other bay.
The Peloponnese Peninsula in Greece is separated from the mainland by the Gulf of Corinth, except where the narrow Isthmus of Corinth connects it to the mainland. Sailing through the Gulf of Corinth from the Aegean Sea to the Ionian Sea would save a lot of distance sailing around the Peloponnese, but the Isthmus of Corinth is in the way.
Roman Emperor Nero starting digging aon canal through the Isthmus of Corinth in AD 67 but the project was abandoned the next year. A canal through the Isthmus of Corinth was dug in 1882 to 1893.
The Diolkos (Δίολκος, from the Greek dia διά, "across", and holkos ὁλκός, "portage machine"1) was a paved trackway near Corinth in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth. The shortcut allowed ancient vessels to avoid the long and dangerous circumnavigation of the Peloponnese peninsula. The phrase "as fast as a Corinthian", penned by the comic playwright Aristophanes, indicates that the trackway was common knowledge and had acquired a reputation for swiftness.2
The main function of the Diolkos was the transfer of goods, although in times of war it also became a preferred means of speeding up naval campaigns. The 6 km (3.7 mi) to 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long roadway was a rudimentary form of railway,3 and operated from c. 600 BC until the middle of the 1st century AD.4 The scale on which the Diolkos combined the two principles of the railway and the overland transport of ships remained unique in antiquity.5
The Diolkos was a trackway paved with hard limestone with parallel grooves running about 1.60 metres (63 in) apart. The roadway was 3.4 to 6 metres (11 to 20 ft) wide. Since ancient sources tell little about how the ships were hauled across, the mode of ship transport has largely to be reconstructed from the archaeological evidence. The tracks indicate that transport on the Diolkos was done with some sort of wheeled vehicle. Either vessel and cargo were hauled across on separate vehicles, or only the cargo was taken across and reloaded on a different ship at the other side of the Isthmus.
Although a technical analysis has shown that the transport of triremes (25 t, 35 metres (115 ft) long, 5 metres (16 ft) beam), albeit difficult, was technically feasible, it is assumed that the vessels were usually smaller boats rather than ships. To avoid damaging the keel during transport, hypozomata, thick ropes running from bow to stern, to reduce sagging and hogging of the hull, must have been used. Ship and cargo were presumably pulled by men and animals with ropes, tackles and possibly also capstans.
Two other ship trackways are briefly mentioned by ancient writers.
I believe that Alexander the Great or one of his successors had war galleys transported from Syria to Mesopotamia to use in the Persian Gulf.
The city of Constantinople was beseiged many times. In times of seige a large iron chain was placed across the entrance to the bay called the Golden Horn to keep enemy ships from entering.
According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, during the Rus raid on Constantinople in 907:
At this point, Oleg resorted to subterfuge: he effected a landing on the shore and had some 2,000 dugout boats (monoxyla) equipped with wheels. After his boats were thus transformed into vehicles, he led them to the walls of Constantinople and fixed his shield to the gates of the Imperial capital.
Of course the dughout boats would have been rather small and lightweight.
The big problem with this story is that the Byzantine sources don't mention that war at all. Thus it is suspected that the story of this war is based on the Rus-Byzantine War of 860.
The Golden Horn was also protected by an iron chain across it during the Turkish capture of Constantinople in 1453.
Mehmed ordered the construction of a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and dragged his ships over the hill, directly into the Golden Horn on 22 April, bypassing the chain barrier.:376
It seems rather certain that none of Mehmet II's people had ever read the Russian Primary Chronicle, so they should have thought of it independently.
One answer to this question: https://www.quora.com/Did-the-Ottomans-really-move-ships-over-land-during-the-conquest-of-constantinople mentions other examples.
So there are examples of small by modern standards seagoing ships loaded on large land vehicles, or converted into land vehicles, for comparatively short distances.
And I think that some of the vehicles which carried ships over land may have been larger than the largest wagons mentioned in other questions.