While evolution is unlikely to result in major changes in the short time period you are looking at, much of this can be basic non-genetic adaptation. If, however, you want your people to be genetically this way, I suggest that the people going into the bunker were already pre-selected to be different.
People who might find it attractive to be hanging out in bunkers underground in case of WW3 are either extremely paranoid OR they have some underlying condition that predisposes them to want to be in dim, light-controlled environments. If you want, why NOT make albinism common in your population? I imagine a community of albinos who came together and decided to follow a more subterranean lifestyle. There are albinos with dark eyes and hair as adults (after foveal development) and a mild version of albinism would result in some visual problems but a fairly normal appearance as adults. Perhaps a mutant OCA2 gene with green eyes.
But if albinism isn't your thing, how about one founding family have abnormal pupils? You just say General X (or his beloved wife) had a genetic anomaly (a variant form of congenital mydriasis, and it can be an autosomal dominant disorder for good measure. This case is of an older woman, so some variants do not have underlying significant neurological problems), and because his/her eyes wouldn't dilate normally, he/she was naturally attracted to what would in the military have been a less prestigious job - nuclear preparedness. Of course, he made sure his kids would be close by in case they all had to go in the bunker - and his kids had it, too. Once in the bunker, those with the dimness adaptation had positive pressure to select - they were better at seeing in the dim conditions, and daddy (General X) was in charge. For life. Who wouldn't marry into that?
Migraines can also make people sensitive to light, and migraines frequently run in families. An initial enrichment of your population with people that have frequent migraines would result in a population that preferred a constant stable environment and low light levels.
Pale skin could also be a founder effect, as a bunch of Scandinavian folks are your bunker dwellers. Alternately. people with red hair are more vulnerable to the effects of sunlight, and I can envision if in the future (or an alternate present), if folks had wanted to escape the effects of widespread ozone damage, underground work would have been a good assignment (especially if general X had a soft spot for recruiting redheads). They would get sunburn easily and freckle a lot in the sun. They can be more sensitive to pain, as well as cold/heat, and taken to an exaggerated level, they would find weather to be unpleasant.
Further, agoraphobia is the fear of the environment, and fear of open spaces. Isaac Asimov had the whole population of Earth suffering from agoraphobia in one of his novels, The Caves of Steel. A society of people who spent their entire lives indoors and underground might easily be wildly agoraphobic, especially if they were prone to anxiety disorders (as people paranoid enough about nuclear war to want to live in a bunker before a war might be).
So I envision a society of big-eyed, green-eyed, red-haired people with anxiety disorders and a familial pupil abnormality. This fits nicely with ancient myths of the Irish Tuath de Dann, the people exiled from the surface to live in their underground realms. No story is complete without tying it to mythology, somehow.
Sleep cycle is easy to explain. Without any external reference, people can keep any schedule they care to. Again, after enriching for an initial population that dislikes sunlight, they may have already have been following a night/evening shift schedule.