I've taken this image from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevailing_winds, which gives a rough overview of the default winds that a planet gets from rotation:
So taking this diagram and applying it to your map, these are the prevailing low altitude winds (arrows are side effect of me using mspaint, not an indication of strength):
Now that we know the wind behavior, we can predict the rain behavior:
Winds pick up moisture over the ocean, and drop it when they hit land. They're much more likely to drop it when they hit high ground.
Green will get decent rains, red will get minimal rain. Water will flow down from the mountains and may run through the red land, making it fertile. If the river doesn't run through there, it'll be desert. I suspect it wont, as there's a quicker path to the sea to the south east.
Your continent has extremes of temperature:
- The red circle in the middle lacks precipitation and a cooling sea breeze. In summer, it'll be similar to the nullabor dessert in Australia, which can hit 49.9 degrees C in the shade, this will occur at the north end of the red annotation. However in winter, it'll get cold enough for constant snow covering, especially in the hilly southeast. (Australia has a ski resort ~150km inland at 35 degrees south at an elevation of 1500 meters)
- The blue lines are going to be constantly cold but unlikely the freeze. The northerly ones may hit 40 degrees C in summer if the winds change for a day, but are typically going to be looking at sea breeze driven temperatures below 20, winter max temps in single digets. Snow may happen but rare.
- Green circles are going to be pretty nice, by Australian standards. Summer maxes in low 40s, Winter maxes in low teens.
- White circles are going to be covered in snow in the winter, and see summer maxes in the high 30s.
I've labelled a few other things on the map. You'd have rivers coming down from the hills, I've taken a guess at the paths. I've also marked where I'd expect settlements, ports, and farmland.
The best harbour is that southern cove I've labelled, unless the rivers are deep enough that an ocean going ship can travel upstream, in which case it'll be within the south-western town on the river there.
The red area will be a bit like tornado alley. Moist air coming from the north will hit dry air going east. You may also get "horizontal tornados" off the minor mountain range at sunrise.
The yellow coastline will get the odd cyclone every few years, but in general this landmass is too far south