My question isn't about whether constant acceleration can create artificial gravity, as I know that it can. I am thinking more about worldbuilding in the sense of a practical transportation system where that would occur.
I'm treating as a given that zero-gravity is not livable. I'm basing this off what our current science tells us that zero gravity is not workable for humans except as an endurance test. And life beyond plants and single-cell organisms is not going to be make it without at least a little gravity.
In my setting, humans are now essentially "trans-humans" having done genetic engineering hard to better live in space: bones and muscles grow freakishly without cues from gravity, cells can repair themselves from radiation and cosmic ray exposure, and there are small things like strong resilience to the coriolis effect. So humans and other engineered life are fine with at least low gravity.
I'm envisioning transportation in the solar system can be done "cheaply," i.e., by wheel or cylinder ships which accelerate hard, shortly, and then mostly drift while spinning, flung in a certain direction.
Then, more comfortable and rapid transportation is done via constant acceleration, powered by deuterium, H3, or Hand-Wavium if I must. We're only talking about intra-solar transportation here, [EDIT: intra-solar system, not through the sun] so nothing needs to be an outrageous amount of acceleration, anything where people experience fairly low, sub-luna gravity up to 1G.
My ships may look like a flying saucer, for instance, and go through an atmosphere flying horizontally, like a traditional saucer image. But once in space and accelerating, they are flipped in a way which would look like they're vertical, which would allow the people inside to have acceleration still giving them a sense of gravity letting them sense what is the overhead and what is the deck the same as when flying horizontally within gravity.
Here's my question about constant-acceleration gravity, though. You obviously have to calculate it in such a way where you'll flip over roughly halfway in your trip start expelling thrust in the opposite direction to slow down.
Obviously, once the ship stops accelerating in a certain direction, everything inside is weightless. My question is what happens with the g-forces when the ship flips over and starts accelerating (maybe at the same rate?) in the other direction to slow down on the second half of the trip?
Would beginning to accelerate in the opposite direction with the same thrust, simply feel the same as the first part of the journey to the passengers, assuming they've flipped over? Or would the bodies inside experience the extreme discomfort like when I'm in a passenger train which is decelerating rapidly to slow down to come into a station? (A sensation I would not like to experience for more than a few minutes.) Or something else?