In zero g there are alot of creative ways to make it difficult to get the ball to the hole with magnets and air jets and hand waving. You would more realistically be looking at what would be akin to extreme mini-golf. But you could take the mini part out here because the course should be huge.
In this scenario the course is littered with barriers, rogue air current "traps", and soft pads to reduce ball velocity. Maybe you could magnetically contain a cloud of shredded "foam" of some sort to act like grass in the air but this feels like it's too far fetched to me.
I can see this being more traditional (taking turns, being quiet) or as a full contact sport with multiple tees. Since it's in zero g you can put those tees anywhere. Having multiple players moving at once creates urgency that will move the game forward and prevent shots from taking too long. Introducing a timer to the scoring can have a similar effect though. Just make it so taking a long time equals a worse chance of winning.
I think there would need to be some clubs with the expressed purpose of hitting balls out of the air. Other necessary equipment would include magnetic boots, some way to get from platform to platform(wingsuit?), and a helmet for collisions that will happen. The helmet doesn't have to be space worthy unless you take your game outside (new set of problems there).
Golf balls are designed to be as aerodynamic as possible while still being roughly round. You'll want to increase drag here, or make the ball lighter. Either way it slows down more. The dimples can be removed or better yet inverted to increase wind resistance. Also consider heavy whiffle balls. They still have weight but the surface area for drag is huge in comparison to golf balls.
If your ball got stuck in the air hitting it at all could be part of the challenge. You would have to aim your jump, lift off without spin and hit precisely while moving.
As for the holes, here I think magnets are best, they can be used in an actual hole with a slight mound around it so the balls don't just funnel in(think hole on a hill rather than hole on an anthill). Magnets can be very powerful over a very short range, meaning that your ball may stick gently to the hill(maybe sheet magnet for this) but still has to be putted over the hole to be dragged inside. You can still get a hole in one this way and you have a reason to keep putters in space golf.
I'm not much into sports, but I can say for certain that I would watch full contact space golf.