You’re neglecting an important arena in the predator/prey dynamic:
If your predators can feel the thoughts of things around them and the prey can detect predatory intent, what’s to stop the predators from evolving effective thought patterns? Many creatures in such a universe would evolve behaviours and senses entirely focused on exploiting thought, and your predators are no exception.
Take ants, as an example. Ants use pheromones extensively. If something in the nest doesn’t smell exactly right, they’ll attack it. Basically they use smell in the same way as you would thought.
So a species of spider has evolved to look and smell like an ant. It’s such an effective disguise that the spider can waltz out of a nest carrying dead larvae and the ants just don’t notice it.
‘But’ I hear you cry ‘Surely that’s predatory intent?’
Well, yes, but it’s an example of the kind of mimicry evolution is capable of. If you have a prey species that eats grass (for example) then a predator that thinks ‘ooh, yummy grass’ when looking at them will have the same ‘predatory intent’ as the prey species has. It will ‘smell the same’, meaning that by the time the prey realise a predator is there it’s too late. The yummy grass will have been eaten.
If thought is used as an extra sense this would make predators that think ‘ooh, grass’ instead of ‘ooh, meat’ evolutionarily favoured. Creatures capable of masking or mimicking thoughts can exist, and not only that but if thought supersedes certain other senses (As pheromones do with ants) then thought-mimics could be highly effective.
You should view ‘thought’ as an extra battleground. If a Despair Squid is capable of broadcasting deep nihilistic despair to nearby prey then they might just die out of the sheer pointlessness of it all.
The Lazy Shrimp relies on instinct, basically positioning a spring loaded claw then making itself invisible by going to sleep and hoping it’s hair-trigger reflexes can catch something.
Chaff Magpies fill the air with mental chatter, making it impossible for prey to spot incoming Sociopanthers. The Magpies eat leftover carrion in an example of a symbiotic relationship.
Oh, and Homo Horrificus actively lets its prey know they’re being hunted, relying on their terror to cause them to run until they’re exhausted or they fall into a pre-prepared trap.
Basically: Extend the arms race that is evolution into the plane of thought. If there’s a mental trick that would help a creature survive in this world evolution will ruthlessly exploit it.