Imagine a world somewhat like x-man where a subset of humanity will develop 'super-powers'. Most powers are relatively minor, but a subset of them are potentially lethal, and others have the potential to be used in other criminal manner, such as theft.
To combat this problem the goverment documents and records everyone super powers in a database; for now presume the database is relatively complete and ignore the difficulty of documenting new powers. Now if Vic is found shot with lasers beams the government can know who has the ability to shoot laser beams that might be a suspect in his murder etc. However, there are concerns about police wanting to use this database purely to find out who is a mutant in order to support unfair persecution of mutants who are otherwise innocent. Thus there must be restrictions on when and how this database is accessed and how it may be used.
What are likely legal standards for use of the database to research super powers? Can police blindly ask for any mutant with lethal powers just because someone was killed in an unusual manner? Can the police check if a suspect has a potentially lethal power before arresting him for their safety? What prevents fishing expeditions to find any potential mutant powers that could be used in a case and then focusing investigations solely on those mutants?
I imagine there would be strong parallels to the requirements that are already in place for doing database searches for things like guns. However unlike with a gun it's not always clear rather a superpower is used or what power was used in a case. Since super powers tend to be a bit more unique it's also harder to classify and group them in a way that allows easy searches, you can easily say that a specific model of gun was used so let's look at those registered with that gun, it's not as easy to say someone appears to have been able to strike a witness without being seen, which power (invisibility, ranged energy blasts, telekinesis, hypnotic suggestion, etc etc) could have done this.
Assume a time and place similar to modern United States. How does the law balance the need to support law enforcement with dealing with criminals that use their powers with the need to protect the numerous innocent mutants from prosecution or unfair harassment for having powers?