I think that you can see it from a need perspective. If there is a need for it, there will be an industry to fill it up. And then it depends on the environment where your nation will be located.
As a starting point, you could look at Maslow's hierarchy of needs,
And then depending on the evolution of your nation, you try to satisfy as many needs as possible.
The first industry needed is the food industry. Indeed people need to eat. For that, you have to consider the level of development your nations lives in. You need food production (agriculture/animals/fishing) to provide raw materials. You might consider distribution and trade, to get from the production centres to the consumption. And if you have a larger population, or need larger travel, you might consider the food transformation industry: from basic one: using ice/salt, to industrial ones: cans. Once you are sure that people eat (enough), you can consider other industries.
They also probably don't want to go around naked. It might be cold, so clothing industry is probably needed to some extend.
Similarly, they probably won't feel like sleeping outside. If you have cities, you need material production (wood, metal, etc.) as well as building industry (bridges, transportation, houses, etc.).
If people are fed and dressed, they want to make sure they will not die just getting out of their home. This require a form of justice and police. Possibly military as well if you fear attacks from outside. The form those take could clearly vary between nowadays (relatively-)safe societies, to a tribe chief and warriors enforcing the decisions of the chief.
It depends on how far is your society advanced, but maybe a system of health: hospitals, doctors, pharmaceutical companies, etc. could be considered.
With that you probably have the very basic needs covered. You might want to consider a few more services to facilitate the previous ones:
- Education to get people ready for your industries.
- Communication to get information from one to the other. It could be a simple postal service, or you could have internet/radio/TV/etc.
- Entertainment, this has always proven useful to maintain a certain equilibrium (think about Caesar's Bread and Circuses).
- Banks, well you might want to have a currency system to support the trade of goods. If so, you need to produce said currency, exchange, move it, give it value etc.
If the people are fed, clothed, feel safe, healthy and entertained, they probably won't break everything havoc. So that should probably be enough for a start.
Following up on Jim2B comment below, one has to consider the evolution of the society and/or tech-level. In prehistoric time, food industry were hunters-gatherers, clothes industry was done with at best some animals skins, housing were at best caves. So in early time several of those industries were combined. As time changes different people starts to fill in different roles and further on more specialised on sub-industries. And of course, the different industries become inter-dependent: you need machines to tend your crops, transports for your army, etc. And metal, metal industry and distribution for all of them. So your guilds are inter-dependent.