Let's go by steps:
Size: bigger eyes mean more light can go in, which is why it's common for nocturnal animals to have larger eyes, along with other mechanisms to maximize the amount of light hitting the retina, like the tapetum lucidum, which gives the appearance that they're glowing when light is directed at them.
Shape: I assume you mean the pupils, unless you mean to talk about the owl's eye "tubes". Here's an image that sums up well:
Color: the color of your iris doesn't really change how you see, but it might change how others see you. Colors tend to have psychological effects, so you could say red eyes have a chance of inspiring anger while baby blue might inspire calmness (which is one of the reasons why many monsters are drawn with red eyes). The presence of a large black iris can also be an advantage if you don't want others to know where exactly are you looking at, but can be detrimental in social species, in which the eyes orientation are important to signal certain messages.
Commenting on the black (?) sclera (ours is white so I assume you inverted by accident) , I have little to say. I've failed to find animals or humans with similar conditions, but the closest I found was a condition whee the pupil simply covers a large portion of the eye, making it look black. The black sclera might be so due to special pigmentation in this part of their eyes, and I doubt it'd actually change their vision, as the sclera's main purpose os keeping the shape of the eye.