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I want to create a harmless snake that can spit like a spitting cobra as a defense while kills its prey by constriction.

Its venom is considered harmless, but when goes to the eyes it causes temporarily blindness, it's like someone squeezing lemon on your eyes.

What substance (or may harmless venom) can my snake spit?

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    $\begingroup$ Watch out buddy. I can tell you from my own experience that asking for suggestions might be poorly viewed. Though it might sound like a pain, it would be better to ask more than one question like "could it have this?" instead of "what could it have?", as your question might be closed for being considered opinion-based. $\endgroup$ – ProjectApex Apr 11 at 16:26
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    $\begingroup$ I tend to agree with @ProjectApex; I like your question, but in its current form it is too opinion-based. I personally think that Worldbuilding.SE should allow speculative idea-gathering questions like this, but rules are rules... $\endgroup$ – The Daleks Apr 11 at 16:34
  • $\begingroup$ This is one strange question. Not only it shape shifts radically, but first it says that lemon juice can cause temporary blindness, and then it asks what liquid can cause temporary blindness. I remember doing this game in pre-school as a gentle introduction to logic. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Apr 11 at 16:59
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    $\begingroup$ @Marvin the Paranoid Android there should be a worldbuilding suggestion SE so these kinds of questions could get the attention they deserve, since they're a good place to gather different ideas people weren't even aware they wanted to know. $\endgroup$ – ProjectApex Apr 11 at 17:02
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    $\begingroup$ @ProjectApex: There are numerous discussion forums on the Internet. StackExchange is not a discussion forum; it is a question and answers site, dedicated to building a database of hopefully correct answers to questions in various domains. We simply don't do unbounded lists here. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Apr 11 at 17:24
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The spit of this snake have to contain some substances which cause mydriasis

eyes showing myadris

or substances causing miosis

enter image description here

Miosis, or myosis, is excessive constriction of the pupil. The opposite condition, mydriasis, is the dilation of the pupil.

In both conditions the eye won't be able to adapt to the environmental light, thus the owner of the eyes will be blinded or severely limited in his vision ability either by too much light or too few light reaching his retina.

Mydriasis can be caused by:

  • Stimulants (typically monoaminergics) such as amphetamines, cocaine, MDMA, and mephedrone.
  • Anticholinergics such as diphenhydramine, atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine

While miosis can be caused by:

  • Opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, heroin and methadone
  • Cholinergic agents such as acetylcholine
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Defensive vomiting.

1: What does snake have in its body that it can spare to shoot at a threat? Digestive enzymes and remains of last meal,

2: What does the snake have handy that it can shoot out of its mouth? Digestive enzymes and remains of last meal!

3: Do things actually vomit as a defense mechanism? Yes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defensive_vomiting

4: Do snakes? Yes, but usually not projectile vomiting although maybe the grossness of it is enough to put off some predators. I take away that ditching the last meal lightens the load and makes it easier to get away. Or maybe the predator will be satisfied to itself eat the last meal?

5: Could digestive enzymes and remains of last meal cause temporary blindness? I have to think yes. Digestive enzymes are going to be either very acidic or very alkaline to break down meat and protein. Remains of last meal is going to be animal slurry. Getting all that in your eyes will make you blink for sure.

I have to think a constrictor would be a great one for shooting vomit - these snakes are already super muscular and constricting those muscles suddenly around the stomach is going to make something happen.

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    $\begingroup$ Snakes do sometimes ditch their meal if they need to leg it. I don't imagine it's a particularly fast process but it does beat laying still for a week while a bird keeps nibbling on you. But then again, we're talking about "whole carcass, covered in acidic goo". Can't exactly spit that out, more like move backwards until you're no longer around it. $\endgroup$ – John Dvorak Apr 12 at 8:51
  • $\begingroup$ As a base snake to shoot digestive juices, I'd suggest cobras. These guys are venomous, yes, but perhaps one of their cousins lost their venom but not the ability to spit? $\endgroup$ – John Dvorak Apr 12 at 8:55
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnDvorak Your last comment on how to ditch your meal is the best thing I have read in a while. $\endgroup$ – Rodrigo A. Pérez Apr 13 at 14:50
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnDvorak - I especially liked "need to leg it". That is probably a frustrating need for a snake. $\endgroup$ – Willk Apr 13 at 16:10
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glue to keep eyes closed.

hystamine to swell eyelids shut.

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  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps can you add a little more clarifying information? $\endgroup$ – The Daleks Apr 12 at 2:21
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Let's go step by step

1-Your nitroglycerin spray. This idea might be a problem, since nitroglycerin is highly unstable. This will give you some additional information about how it might be more dangerous for the organism which produces and stores it than to a potential predator, unless it can be stabilized by other organic methods, which would likely take too much energy and resources to make such a defense mechanism worth it.

2-your super fart. A squirt might be a better idea, since the gas would have a harder time sticking to the agressor, thus making it only effective so long as both stay in the area, and even then, once the gas dissipates the prey would be defenseless, since such mechanisms usually require time to be used again (see how skunks can't squirt their stuff all the time, requiring 10 days before being able to use it after a full power spray).

3-your taser mechanism. It actually already exists, though it's more commonly used by predators to stun prey, as electric signals travel better in water. On land dwelling animals though it might be an issue, as it'd need to have 2 structures making contact with the agressor and likely be surrounded by fatty tissue to isolate the current. In addition, if one of the structures is harmed and made unusable the teaser will be rendered useless. The ability to shoot structures attached to organic cables/hairs is also not that likely.

Basically, while they all sound cool, it's hard to tell whether the risks of these mechanisms and the resources dedicated to them would make them worth it. As a means of helping your imagination, in here you can find some examples of peculiar defense mechanisms which already exist.

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  • $\begingroup$ For number three a frogs tongue might be seen as something which could conduct electricity and shoot out relatively far. $\endgroup$ – D.J. Klomp Apr 11 at 18:34
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Your snake can be descendant of a squid and just spit ink. The ink would have to be sticky so that it is hard to wash out quickly. Only careful rinsing away the ink restores your full eyesight.

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The snake could have evolved to have venom composed of vitamin C and citric acid. Snakes can produce both of those substances, and this would have an effect quite similar to lemon juice, as these substances are the things that make lemon juice hurt the eyes

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