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enter image description here

This, ladies and gentlemen, is Melalo, described in the Book of Creatures website as "the oldest and most feared of Ana's children." His name literally means "filthy", "dirty" or even "obscene". This guy is said to project "anger, rage, cruelty, sadism, frenzy, rape, and insanity" to anyone who crosses paths with him.

Now the focus of the question concerns that weird outgrowth on Melalo's back, which in the official legend is his second head. In real life, however, that "second head" would instead be some kind of casque, like the one you find in hornbills or cassowaries. But bird casques are usually placed on the head, which doesn't affect the hornbill's overall ability to fly.

I have found nothing mentioning that Melalo could fly, but the point of having a casque at the BACK rather than the head still takes precedence. Why would Melalo and his species--or genus--have such a thing on his back?

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    $\begingroup$ Suggestion: maybe include a link to a reference? Even if only in the "citation" or "further info" section of your question? $\endgroup$ Mar 12 '20 at 0:29
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    $\begingroup$ Not clear what's the premise of your question. Is it "let's assume this is an actual creature. What would be the physiological purpose of the second head?" or "We handwave the second head in. Now, how and to what volition-driven-purpose this mythological creature could use it?" (like: "How does it work in relation to Melalo's victims?"). The science-based and behavior tags seem at odds. (if you try to 'por que no los dos' this, then you have two questions, which may or may be not frown upon here. Even if this is the case, I feel clarifying this explicitly is still needed) $\endgroup$ Mar 12 '20 at 0:46
  • $\begingroup$ Kangaroo: copycat. $\endgroup$
    – user6760
    Mar 12 '20 at 1:02
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It is a false head, to discourage predators.

pygmy ouwl with false eyespots

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automimicry

This pygmy owl is doing the same thing. It has a false face on the back of its head. It seems like it is looking at you. Really it is looking the other way.

A false head or face might discourage predators who think they have been seen, and so are in for a fight. Predators dont want to fight.

The other role for a false head is to divert an attack from the real head. A strike on the real head would probably kill. A strike on the fake head; not such a big deal. Thorny devils have a false head positioned like your evil critter.

thorny devil

  1. Thorny devils have a “false head” on their shoulders. Thorny devils have a strange, knob-like appendage on the backs of their necks, which is sometimes called a false head. When threatened, the lizard can tuck its real head down between its forelegs, leaving the false head where its real head used to be. https://www.wired.com/2014/09/the-creature-feature-10-fun-facts-about-the-thorny-devil/
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