Yes, this is very much possible. However, at the same time unlikely at the scale you point out.
First of all, as pointed out by L.Dutch, an overload of harsh bright light is increasingly uncomfortable and has massively diminishing returns. While it is technically possible to illuminate a city to daylight, it is simply not necessary to do so, and apart from lit up advertising it is unlikely unnecessarily excessive amounts of lighting will be installed.
Secondly, only busy areas need to be illuminated. Think city centres with night shops, clubs, restaurants etc. However for a large city, those areas are often concentrated into hubs. These areas will be lit more, while people will prefer other areas darker. It is unlikely an entire city block will be illuminated for one food truck. Consider that people will prefer to sleep at night, even in a 24/7 culture. When suburban areas are overly lit, complaints will increase, while the usefulness of such lighting is debatable to begin with. Overly lit high-rises for example are unlikely to make you popular.
Thirdly, costs. While energy consumption by lighting might decrease in the future, the variety and scale of lighting you point out will get increasingly more expensive to install and maintain. It is unlikely a large city will fund large amounts of unnecessary lighting. For example in your picture most buildings have a large illuminated strip around them. These are utterly unnecessary as they do not illuminate anything. This is not a trafficked or pedestrian area, and are unlikely to be strong enough to help illuminate such areas, and if they are, these are utterly inefficient.
Lastly, colour. There have been increasing calls from various environmental groups to reduce the amount of artificial lights for exactly the reasons you state. Therefore the current idea is for most artificial lighting to be changed to a green colour. This is the colour humans best perceive in their visible spectrum, and therefore increasingly efficient in illuminating areas while needing less light and energy. Green light is also believed to be less disruptive to wildlife and natural rhythms. If this movement takes off, then the amount of lighting might actually decrease in the future, while visibility might increase.