Not really, no.
You'd be far better off calling in the Dutch and having some dykes put in and drying out an area of shallow water or building like Venice on piles in shallow water.
Floating is a problem
Even when single floating habitat is reasonably practical multiple floating habitats become a problem. Two vessels alongside each other cause damage at the contact points, the larger the movement the more damage.
Compound mobile structures are a problem
Consider the movement of a compound pendulum, it's chaotic. You're linking masses together either close enough that they constantly do direct damage or far enough apart that you're building a complex compound pendulum system.
Anchored objects move
Have you ever stood near a large tower block in a wind? The wind around any large structure is changed, normally amplified as it flows round the structure. Anchored ships (and other structures) move around in the wind. And in the waves, and the current, and with the tide. An ocean world will have significant waves, currents, winds, and tides, your structures are going to have significant movement caused by all of these things. The wind could cause serious issues as you have created structures large enough to significantly affect airflow and hence objects downwind differently from the initial objects.
Add this to the previous two factors and you have a city that will shred itself in short order.
You could potentially build on shallow water oil rig platforms that are effectively set on piles into the ocean floor, this is still a temporary option as you're fundamentally isolated from natural resources. You'd be far better off building dykes and pumping up the seabed to expand the available dry land. See Netherlands, Hong Kong, Dubai (though they do it for other reasons) for practical examples.