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I want to create a world where humans can live outside (perhaps with some protective clothing) but where very high winds exist in almost all potentially habitable areas making life outside impossible except in a few very sheltered spots such as large craters.

How can a habitable world with approximately Earth-like gravity have such constant high winds?

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Your world should be tidally locked.

An Earth-sized world close enough to a dim star can exist within the habitable zone while maintaining equal periods of revolution and rotation. This means one side will always face the star, and the other never will.

Much of the planet would not be habitable. The far-side would be freezing, and the near-side would be boiling. That said, with a thick enough atmosphere, such a planet could distribute heat in such a way that the "habitable ring" (which happens to be near the terminator) could widen. You can also move the planet to the inner or outer edge of the habitable zone to influence where to put comfortable temperatures.

The convection produced by such a large temperature gradient would cause significant winds - as noted by Willk 35 minutes ago when I landed on that question to link it here :)

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Superrotation

You atmosphere would superrorate - a (known) way to achieve this is to have slow rotation of the planet. Tidally locking (as per Zxyrra's answer) your world is almost a necessary condition if you are around a red dwarf, but that is not quite an Earth-like condition.

The most Earth-like and plausible way is to have a habitable Venus (likely at somewhat less than Earth insolation), with normal-density superrotating atmosphere. On Venus, the winds at Earth atmospheric pressure level go somewhere around $400\, km\cdot h^{-1}$ or even more (they slow down when going down).

The wind itself might not be enough to distribute heat evenly enough, but a circumplanetary equatorial ocean very plausibly would.

If you want you can provide some "natural" light during some of those long nights by either faint binary star companion, or a huge moon with a high albedo (e.g. our Luna, but covered with ice), or being in a binary planet configuration, or orbiting a superjovian.

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