What needs to be changed in the structure of the human stomach so that a person is almost completely immune to poisons and toxins ( especially interesting regarding the poison of puffer fish, Gray Grebes, etc.), but not to lose nutrients from food?

In other words, what needs to be changed in the structure of the stomach to completely disinfect food ( poisons, etc.) without losing nutrients?

( below is a video that clearly shows the poisons and their dosages deadly for ordinary people, it is the problem of interaction with them that needs to be solved )

Toxicity Comparison (This little will KILL you) https://youtu.be/flv0ql218-A

It would also be interesting to know what needs to be changed/ added to the stomach (digestive system ) to increase the efficiency of food use ( that is, so that we get more energy from food).

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    $\begingroup$ This modification is very unlikely to be practical. To remove simple poisons like cyanide, we either have to chemically bind it, or use systems like reverse osmosis. Both would make digestive system complex and huge. $\endgroup$
    – Alexander
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 17:31
  • $\begingroup$ please explain in more detail all the chemical and other processes, compactness I will do later. $\endgroup$
    – user71408
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 17:43
  • $\begingroup$ Tricky question... A lot of substances are poisonous, if you take enough of them. Say, 1 kg of salt is absolutely deadly. Common pain killers could also be considered poisons. $\endgroup$
    – Igor G
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 18:07
  • $\begingroup$ in the video the link contains all poisons (if you exclude water) with which you need to deal $\endgroup$
    – user71408
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 18:13
  • $\begingroup$ Oh well, I don't think I can even write an answer, I can just point to a number of issues. Suppose we can use reverse osmosis - but this is just to get pure water. Next, we need to extract nutrients from the residue. This will be an energy-intensive process, and it's very unlikely that we'll get more energy from filtered nutrients than spend filtering out poisons. $\endgroup$
    – Alexander
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 18:56

1 Answer 1


Poisons vary greatly.

Ambroise Pare famously tested the efficacy of bezoar against poison. Bezoar was thought to be a universal antidote but Pare was skeptical. A condemned man agreed to do the test, on the condition that he would be pardoned if it worked. He ate bezoar (a big hairball) and then poison. The poison chosen for this experiment was lye which burned the heck out of him and the test subject died in agony. Pare described the whole thing.

But bezoar might have worked pretty well against heavy metals like arsenic or mercury - they would have been bound to the sulfur groups in the hair.

Takeaway is that there is not one cure. "Poison" is like "disease" or "enemies". They are legion and they differ. You need to consider your defenses one enemy at a time.

  • $\begingroup$ First, tell us more about " bezoar ", and is it possible to create something similar in the body? Secondly. Yes, I know that poisons have different effects on the body and it is impossible to create protection from all of them, but can you provide me with some options through which it would be possible to filter food from poisons? ( if you ate food poisoned with cyanide, arsenic, or just ate improperly cooked Puffer fish )? $\endgroup$
    – user71408
    Commented Feb 5, 2020 at 20:12

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