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Previous question: Proofing dragons against their acidic breath weapon 1/2: Smart Neutralizing Agent

So, I decided to find an alternative breath weapon for my dragons, that maximizes destructive potential for the least amount of weight. That's how we arrived at aqua regia, an insanely strong acid that could still be synthesized by a biological creature.

As it turns out, neutralizing an acid, that ate Star Platinum and Jotaro in one sitting for dinner, comes at a cost, namely, mustard gas. That's rather problematic, since dragons are exposed to that and aqua regia, whenever they use their breath weapon.

So, I guess it'd be better to keep away or stall aqua regia. This defense has to

  1. Protect the dragon's skin.

  2. Be translucent, as it has to be applicable to the nictitating membrane.

  3. Dragons should be able to produce a special, protective saliva as well. They lick their wounds to prevent them from being contaminated by the chlorine gas and the occasional aqua regia droplets.

What biologically possible material, that can't be scraped away easily, could stall or maybe even stop aqua regia and its byproducts?

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Either a layer of nickel oxides or a polymerized fluorine based compound will work just fine for this. Seriously, a Teflon Dragon would be essentially invulnerable to any chemical attack but it would be HIGHLY vulnerable to scratching / slashing damage as most of these materials are very flaky and brittle.

Nickel oxide is also inert to most acids. It's heavier but harder to scratch. Maybe scales or membranes made of sandwiched layers of nickel and carbon, silicon or some kind of organic ceramic for what would actually be a pretty intense defense. You'd have near chemical invulnerability, be able to withstand temperatures in the thousands of degrees.

As for internally, some kind of mucous layer sputtered with more nickel or even aluminum oxide would give transient protection while using the breath weapon. It's possible that overuse would result in the heartburn from hell though. The nictating membrane over the eyes presents a problem because it'd probably have to be quartz or glass which aren't very flexible. Maybe give your dragons compound eyes like a Dragonfly with quartz lenses. Some kind of organ in the windpipe to filter out the fumes from getting into its lungs would be important as well.

I don't have much for the saliva, I guess if it exuded metal oxides in its saliva it could temporarily cover wounds to keep them chemically impermeable until a scale grew back.

Consider adding hydrofluoric acid to the breath weapon to make the nightmare of all nightmares. It'd become a gas that passes through skin painlessly as it eats your nerves before they can fire, then dissolves your bones and gobbles up the calcium ions in your heart, causing death from heart attack within days.

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