A 1 meter hole in a dome's superstructure is likely to severely damage something else below it. If you need an "its gonna blow in 5 minutes!" story element, have the impact cause fires that are threatening the Fuel or Oxygen storage.
Use the loss of pressurization and escaping atmosphere as something that hinders the efforts to repair the damage.
Here are some quick estimates so you can get an idea what this looks like:
Assuming a 20 meter radius dome (approx 132 feet wide) with a 1 meter hole and a shell that's 0.5 meters thick and is pressurized at 1 atm.
According to this site's tool - https://www.copely.com/tools/flow-rate-calculator/ - The flow rate will be about 10,000,000 liters per minute.
The volume of your hemisphere will be around 16 million liters. Assuming the pressure stays the same in the dome, its will vent all 16 million liters in around 2 minutes - updated figures.
Realistically you will lose pressure as the air vents from the dome, so it will take longer. At half pressure the flow rate is still about 500,000 liters per minute though, so it doesn't slow down that much.
You can keep the pressure in the dome "stable" by having an oxygen leak fueling a raging fire, creating smoke and CO2 that replaces the previously breathable air.
If you don't do something like that and allow the pressure to decrease and air to vent, your dome will have LESS of a chance of exploding since fire needs oxygen to burn.
Another consideration is that the dome might rely on the air pressure inside to keep it up supported. Removing the air might cause the ceiling to collapse, but not explode outwards, it will implode inwards.
In regards to point 1) yeah the flowing air can cause more damage, but likely only to the immediate area surrounding the impact. You could have a meteor punch only a small hole at first, but the damage to the surrounding material causes it to grow as air rushes out, settling at your 1m diameter.