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So, there are creatures with insane regenerative abilities, like casually putting their severed head back on their neck and it's fixed in mere seconds.

The reason for that is that it's not true regeneration. These creatures are made of a fluid, so if any part falls of or gets damaged, it can quickly be molded back into shape. Their bodies are pretty much homogeneous, the only part that's "different" is their skeleton, and only in the sense that it's a different type of fluid that becomes slightly stronger after consolidating (since it's a framework).

The creatures are artificial and so they don't play by the rules of evolution.

Now, these creatures are supposed to be humanoid and move like actual humans, but how can they do that?

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    $\begingroup$ It sounds like you're trying to invent the T-1000... $\endgroup$ – Matthew Dec 18 '19 at 15:33
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The liquid isn't really a liquid, but a soup of fairly tightly bound microscale multipurpose components. Not nanobots, but the insides of these artificial cells certainly make use of nanotechnological processes.

Each component (let's call it a "souplet" with a nod to the components of utilty fog). They're relatively dumb and simple things... they contain a small power source and a very small and simple processor, a tiny fleck of memory and a few molecular motors attached to arms which they can push out and retract to some small degree. Each arm also has tiny data and power connectors. Individual souplets can't do anything; they're too stupid. When you've got a critical mass though, you can program them to do useful things, like link up with other souplets to form a power and data network, form into a useful shape, wander around, squash meatbags, that sort of thing.

This is obviously a fearsomely powerful technology, but you need a correspondingly fearsome computer to drive it in any useful way. If your computer broke, or you lost your souplet fabricator but left it turned on, you get a load of fairly unintelligent amoeboid things that floop around in a fairly aimless way. Maybe they bump into the debris of former souplet aggregates who met an untidy end, and absorb a little tiny bit of the programming and memories of the fallen. Something about being human shaped? Yeah, that'll do. Close enough. I'm sure the rest of the programming directives are in another bit of you somewhere near by. Maybe those other human looking things. Lets network with them and see what happens.

The periphery of the souplet network can provide propioceptive information. The centre which doesn't have to move around can supply electrical and processing power for the periphery. The bits that don't need to move much can become denser and tougher, a bit like a skeleton (but perhaps more like the trunk of a tree).

You slice one of these things in half, and the two halves have suddenly got a lot less intelligent, individually. Throw em off a cliff so they go splash and the resulting puddle can't really do anything useful except slosh about trying to reaggregate and work out what it was and what it was doing before it was so rudely interrupted. This looks like regeneration but is really just repair and repurposing. Destroyed souplets stay destroyed. Heat, corrosion, radiation and or merely suitably applied mechanical force can destroy a souplet. The aggregates can be ground down and indeed killed. But if you don't do a thorough job, the next aggregate that comes by might step in a splash of the one you didn't quite kill enough, and remember a little bit about you, and how it doesn't like you very much, and how you might be a bit less on guard now...

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Since you use the tag science-based, what is the definition of a liquid according to science?

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

It follows that if your creatures are liquid cannot have an own shape, no matter if it is human, cow or sponge-like.

Unless your creature as an outer shell which resembles a human body, in that case they can take that form.

They can then move using fibers of dynamically variable length dispersed in the liquid and are attached to the extremities they want to move. More or less like an amoeba can move its body.

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    $\begingroup$ I love playing the blame game, so if the "mold back into shape" and "consolidate" part didn't ring the alarm bells for words that are used more or less interchangeably and by someone who's native language is Hungarian, then it's on you. $\endgroup$ – Mephistopheles Dec 17 '19 at 20:39
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As L.Dutch states in their answer, if their body was a liquid throughout then it cannot maintain any specific shape other than that of the container it is in. But there are a couple of options that might work:

A flexible position-controllable skin. If the creature has a leathery semi-elastic skin that can adjust its tension and/or rigidity then the skin could be used to maintain shape and provide motive force. Imagine a very thick wet-suit, for example, that incorporated its own musculature, tendons etc.

A very high surface tension The liquid that the body is constructed from could (somewhat implausibly) have very high surface tension - sufficient to keep the creature from "adapting to the shape of the container'" - consider for example how mercury can bead up. At first thought this could only produce a very small spheroidal creature, but if the magnitude of the surface tension was dependent on local chemical potentials or electrical fields then it might be possible to alter the body's shape (a bit). In practice this would probably only be practical if the creature was small, was in a low gravity environment, or was floating in an external supporting liquid.

The leathery skin option doesn't really allow for instant repair, but teh surface tension option may do.

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These creatures have muscles.

I assume the outer skin of these creatures is a bag or membrane of some sort, containing the fluid. If not, they would be a puddle.

If they can have a membrane on the outside they can have membranes on the inside. These internal membrane sacs are attached to the skeleton (which is the same shape as a human skeleton) at the same places as human muscles. By controlling the quantity of fluid pumped into or out of a given internal membrane sac (muscle) the length of the sac can be controlled. More volume pushes the sac toward a spherical shape, contracting in length. Less volume allows it to stretch.

Our muscles move by contracting and pulling bones together then relaxing. This is how the fluid creatures do it too, except using hydraulics.

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