A single, broken IC of any sort is unlikely to create any change in direction of research, or spur any new breakthroughs. Almost all of the advancement since the 1980s has been in miniaturization, which has allowed more power for less.... power (I'm talking computing power per amp, etc). This has enabled new things like WiFi and video streaming and the like.
But they wouldn't know what those were if it's broken. They might be able to identify it as a radio transmitter, but not know what it is or what it's for. It'd be smaller, sure, and work on frequencies they probably aren't using, but the concept of a built-in radio transmitter isn't really that new.
Additionally, with a single device, there's only so much you can get out of things without destroying it.
So, it would reinforce the paths that were being investigated - Perhaps speed them up a little, but it wouldn't be anything revolutionary.
Now, for some speculation.
If you sent back a functioning cell phone and charger (Which would function just fine in the 80s), THAT could change things. Not the technology, but how we use it. There were plenty of projects in the 1980s that were outright FLOPS, because people thought they'd be popular, and they weren't. Similarly, there were things that were neglected that have been dug up and people go "That would have been AWESOME! and would have changed a lot of things!"
I'm specifically excluding any historic information - since that's a whole different ballgame in itself - but knowing that, in the year 2020 we aren't always video calling even though the technology is there and clearly capable of doing it would change some people's outlooks. Early mobile phones were not super popular - for numerous reasons, but knowing that they would be everywhere would likely change a lot of priorities. Similarly, the Lithium Polymer batteries found in every modern phone are a little more advanced than the rechargeable batteries of the 1980s - but knowing that they became the battery of choice could acceleate that research, and possibly edge out NiCad and other rechargeable battery types that have their own issues.
The processes for producing chips is iterative, small advancements that really can't be accelerated with just an example of a chip. How they're used can enlighten people into many, many new ideas.