Saturn has rings of debris which orbit it, and it is possible to get a satellite into an orbit that will at least last a few years, so my question is as follows; How many satellites (or just the pure volume of material if it is easier) would we have to launch into a temporary orbit (unless a permanent orbit is possible) to create at least one artificial ring around Earth that is visible to the naked eye.
Quite a lot.
From a quick internet search I have found this
a ring of 480,000,000 copper dipole antennas (needles which were 1.78 centimetres long and 25.4 micrometres  or 17.8 micrometres  in diameter) was placed in orbit to facilitate global radio communication.
The US Military launched 480 million copper needles into orbit around Earth in a project called Project West Ford. Scientists could bounce radio signals off the needles and communicate between two locations on Earth. This worked for a few months after launch, until the needles were too far dispersed to allow for communication. In theory, if needles were continuously launched, it would be a functioning communications system
You can get a ballpark figure from the quoted text above. In medium Earth orbit you would need hundreds of millions of small objects to create a temporary ring. The further away you go from Earth, the more objects you would need to saturate the orbit.
To keep the same linear density you would need to scale up the number by the same factor you scale up the orbit radius (2x as far the orbit will be 2x as long requiring 2x as many objects).