Foresight can only predict predictable things.
Yes, that's a tautology but I want to make a point - you can predict anything the module can calculate. For example, if you throw a die, then it can take into consideration force, angle, position, etc. and calculate what the most likely roll(s) would be. If you flip a coin, the module can also do a similar calculation based on physics - how much what is the speed with which the coin travels, what it's rotation, to derive an answer.
However, if you're in the vicinity of something completely random that cannot be calculated, then the computer cannot derive any probability.
Since the module also has to be fed data, that means that you get additional hurdles:
- If something could not be measured, then it can't be calculated. In particular, if somebody is obscuring the view to a rolled die, there might not be enough data to derive a useful or correct prediction for where it lands. A gimmick die that, say, has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1 on its sides (no 6, but an extra 1) might also produce an incorrect prediction.
- Not all events can be predicted all the time. Perhaps you can calculate the exact trajectory of each lottery ball as they are being shuffled and you can derive the most likely combinations that will be drawn. However, you cannot do that a week in advance but only as the balls are being shuffled. And most of the time, you can't buy a lottery ticket as the lottery is being drawn, so you can't just win the money.
OK, the latter can be somewhat alleviated by using statistics on past data. Perhaps, you can predict a reasonable amount of combinations for a lottery by analysing all past drawings and trying to derive a pattern of how the balls are being shuffled. Not in the draw but literally the shuffling - analyse the trajectories and you can know which ball is most likely to be drawn, assuming you know their positions before the shuffle. And if you also have data on how they are being put into the shuffling machine, then you just might get a good guess. However, even if you could simulate all of this perfectly (or well enough), then this foresight is still very vulnerable to disruptions - the janitor at the lottery studio might bump into the sack of balls which might throw off all your calculations. And since you can't see this, you can't know it, nor predict it.
In a fight, the prediction module would be of some use but might also be misleading. It will be able to tell you where a strike would (likely) fall but only while the strike is coming. It's unlikely to be able to anticipate what your opponent is planning to do.
Also the prediction might actually work against you - since the window for prediction is small, a smart opponent will feign an attack to get you to start to dodge in a direction and then redirect their blow to that location. You would be warned of where the real attack is going but it might be physically impossible to dodge away while already dodging.
Again, past behaviour analysis could improve things. If you've fought or at least observed a person fight, the prediction software might be able to derive likely actions - e.g., attack from the left is usually followed by attack to the body. However, this again relies upon having sufficient and accurate past data to draw upon for prediction. An opponent could do something unexpected or change their style so an attack from the left is now followed by an attack to the head. Also, if there is no past data - you face somebody for the first time, there is no data to build a prediction - you mighty not even survive enough to be find out what a blow to the left might is followed with.
Finally, probably the biggest factor is how much data and processing power the foresight module has. It might be able to predict the trajectories of all lottery balls but it might not have enough power to do it. It might not have good enough sensors to measure how a die was rolled or notice which pips show on the sides while it's in motion. It might have trouble with certain calculations because of the nature of the Math involved. The past analysis might be completely impossible due to lack of long term storage. Or even if there is long term storage, it might not be able to dedicate it to one thing only - for example, a particular person's fighting.